This a copy of my paper and I need it to be revised.ThanksDistracted Walking: Cell Phones Increase Injury Risk forCollege PedestriansStavrinos, D.; Byington, K.W.; Schwebel, D.C. (2011).Journal of Safety Research, Chicago. 42.2:101According to (CTIA, 2010) estimated that close to 300million Americans currently own cell phones. The article state how convenientlytechnologies and cell phone is tremendous, but they pose a risk in certainsituations. Almost 9 in 10 young adults admit to talking on a cell phone whiledriving, for example, making them the most likely age group to engage in thisdangerous activity (Harris Poll, 2006 and Walsh et al., 2008). An accumulatingbody of literature supports the hypothesis that cell phone jeopardize thesafety of drivers (Caird et al., 2008, Horrey and Wickens, 2006, Strayer andDrews, 2007 and Strayer and Johnston, 2001). There were two studies that hadexamined the risk of distraction to pedestrians in virtual environment. Thefirst study, children pedestrians distracted on the phone were less attentive,less safe time between completing their crossing and the next vehicle arriving,experienced more collisions and close calls, and waiting longer before beginningto cross the street, than when undistracted (Stavrinos, Byington, and Schwebel,2009). The Second study, adults distracted by a phone conversation took morerisks in the virtual pedestrian environment than those distracted by listeningto music or those who had no distractions present (Neider, McCarley, Crowell,Kaczmarski, and Kramer, 2010).Is a Hands-Free Phone Safer than a Handheld Phone? Ishigami, V.; Klein, R.M. (2009). Journal of SafetyResearch; Chicago. 40.2:157In this article it showed that it has come to pass thatcell phone use can be hazardous while driving, even though, jurisdictionsmaking handheld phone use illegal while allowing hands-free phone use. Onestudy showed that phone, regard less of what type, and has negative impact onperformance in detecting and identifying events. Research do not have anysupport on the decision to allow hands-free use while driving. Although we useour hands and feet to drive, but our mind controls the driving. As WilliamJames (1890) noted, paying attention…” implies withdrawal from some things inorder to deal effectively with others” (p.403-404). Increasing Following Headway with Prompts, Goal Setting,and Feedback in a Driving Simulator Arnold, M.L.; Van Houten, R. (2011). Journal of AppliedBehavior Analysis; Malden 44.2:245-54.A study on the effect of prompting, goal setting, andfeedback on following headway of young drivers in a simulated drivingenvironment and assessed any changes produced in following headway wasassociated with reductions in hard braking while on the phone or not using thephone. “One of the major contributors to collisions is a following headwaythat’s too short to allow the following driven to react appropriately to suddenbraking by the lead vehicle” (Taieb-Maimon and Shinar, 201). “Cell phone usewhile driving has caused major concern in the driver-distraction literature(AAA foundation for Traffic Safety, 2008). Alm and Nilsson (1995) evaluated theeffect of engagement in a cell phone task during a driving simulation and foundthat cell phone conversations increased reaction time.Does Banning Handheld Cell Phone use while Driving ReduceCollisions? Trempel, R.E.; Kyrychenko, S.Y.; Moore, M.J. (2011).Chance; Abingdon. 24.3:6-11.Drivers’ distraction accounts for numerous of crasheseach year. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration noted that “22%of injury crashes and 16% of fatal crashes involve driver distraction.” Theexact numbers of crashes due to distraction is hard to ascertain due to varietyof possible distractions. When you look around and notice other driverstalking, eating, applying makeup, adjusting radio, and many other things thatcause distraction. There has been several studies that have founded thattalking on cell phones if they be handheld or hands-free cell phones hasincreased the risk of crashes. According to Insurance Institute of HighwaySafety reviewed “more than 120 cell phone studies founded that cell phone usehas a negative effect on drivers’ performance.” Cell phone use increasedrivers’ reaction time, speed and lane deviations. Effects of Drivers Cell Phone use on Driver Aggression.McGarva, A.R.; Ramsey, M.; Shear, S.A. (2006). TheJournal of Social Psychology; Philadelphia. 146.2:133-46.A report done in 2003 by the National Highway TrafficSafety Administration had surveyed that 30% drivers use cell phones whiledriving. “A recent observational study reported an increase in driver cellphone use from 2004 to 2005 and estimatedthat as many as 974,000 vehicles on the road in the United States are beingoperated by a driver using a hand-held phone at any given daylight moment”(Glassbrenner, 2005). “Researchers have observed that engaging in telephoneconversations adversely affects a driver’s ability to appropriately react tosimulated roadway situations requiring change in speed or direction” (McKnight& McKnight, 1993), “ability to brake when following another driver whobrakes” (Aim & Nilsson, 1195), and “ability to brake in response to a redlight” (Strayer & Johnston, 2001) – “effects that appear to be greater inolder drivers” (Shinar, Tractinksy, & Compton, 2005). Cell phone has becomeubiquitous. One can see people talking on cell phones while shopping, walking,eating out, and driving. Driver’s grow on cell phone use has caught scientificinterest, which researchers address that the effect of cell phone use ondriver’s attention.