John and Mary are health educators in a community clinic. John’s specialtyis working with clients on smoking cessation. Occasionally he and Marycollaborate on difficult cases to formulate strategies to assist clients who are having a particularly difficult time with smoking cessation. Aformer smoker himself, and having watched his mother die ofsmoking-related lung cancer, he is passionate about the health effectsof this addictive habit as well as helping his clients to quit. Hissuccess rate for client quitting is 95%.
John has asked Mary tocollaborate on a plan for a client who, despite all interventions, hasfailed to quit smoking. John tells Mary that he intends to use a scaretactic to motivate the client to change his behavior. John states thathe is going to tell the patient that new research has just beenpublished showing that all workplaces will test for nicotine in theiremployees and anyone testing positive will be excluded from theworkplace, leaving the client unemployable if he does not quit. Marypoints out that while there are employers who are considering thispolicy, no such research actually exists. John states that Mary iscorrect but points out that the client will not question the validitybecause John is known to be the resident expert in this topic. Hefurther points out that if using this method helps him to quit and avoid the health consequences of smoking, then it cannot possibly cause anyharm to use this tactic. Mary becomes conflicted with feelings; shewants the patient to quit on one level, but feels this may be wrong onanother. She tells John his behavior is unethical.
Which ethicaltheory is John basing his decision making on and which theory is Maryusing to support her stance? Explain your reasoning in both cases.