Discussion post 1

A Pirandellian Prison

Please go to the following weblink:

Zimbardo, P. G., Haney, C., Banks, C., & Jaffe, D. (1973, April 8). A Pirandellian prison: The mind is a formidable jailer.  New York Times Magazine, pp. 38-60.  http://www.prisonexp.org/pdf/pirandellian.pdf

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question),  procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions?  Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results?  Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

Asch and Conformity 

Please go to this study. http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/0155060678_rathus/ps/ps18.html

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

  The Abiline Paradox:  The Management of Agreement

Whereas, most of us are familiar with the Bystander Effect and Zimbardo’s Prison Study, this study is very different for those of us who might not have had any courses in organizational psychology.  As you will see many of the concepts we have learned early on in introductory psychology, social psychology and other courses come into play in this case.  See what you think.

Please click on the following link and enter your last name and ID number.

Harvey, J. B. (1974). The Abilene Paradox: The management of agreement.Organizational Dynamics, 3 (1), 63 – 80. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(74)90005-9 http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5140990&site=eds-live&scope=site

Your assignment:

I found the list of objectives for this article on page 66 would be a good starting point for our discussion.  You need not discuss all of these issues in depth, but try to hit the high points of 4 or 5 if you can. I have rephrased these for you below.   Also, please relate some of the concepts you have learned in your other courses whenever you can.

1) What is the Abilene paradox?  Describe some of the the symptoms of organizations caught in the paradox.

2) Tell us about one of the case studies that Harvey (1974) describes on pages 67-69.

3) Harvey discusses 5 factors when analyzing the paradox.  Discuss at least two of these and their importance in the paradox.

4) On page 73, Harvey discusses several terms that describe the risk factors of his model (A Possible Abilene Bypass). Discuss several of these as they relate to his model and to your understanding of these terms in social psychology.

5) How would someone go about diagnosing the paradox?  What suggestions does Harvey make?

6) What are his recommendations for coping with the paradox?

Your thoughts, and comments, please.  

Leiby Kletzy’s Abduction and Homicide

Read the case at:  http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/files/social_reaction.pdf

First, provide a short description of the case.

Then, identify and explain at least 4 social psychological principles at work in this case.

For some ideas, see the worksheets following the case.

Bystander Intervention  

Please go to this study. You sill need to enter your last name and ID number and then download the study.

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=16645191&site=eds-live&scope=site

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383.  http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=16645191&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

STUDY……

BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES: DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY3 JOHN M. BARLEY New York University BIBB LATANfi Columbia University Ss overheard an epileptic seizure. They believed either that they alone heard the emergency, or that 1 or 4 unseen others were also present. As predicted the presence of other bystanders reduced the individual’s feelings of personal responsibility and lowered his speed of reporting (p < .01). In groups of size 3, males reported no faster than females, and females reported no slower when the 1 other bystander was a male rather than a female. In general, personality and background measures were not predictive of helping. Bystander inaction in real-life emergencies is often explained by “apathy,” “alienation,” and “anomie.” This experiment suggests that the explanation may lie more in the bystander’s response to other observers than in his indifference to the victim. Several years ago, a young woman was stabbed to death in the middle of a street in a residential section of New York City. Although such murders are not entirely routine, the incident received little public attention until several weeks later when the New York Times disclosed another side to the case: at least 38 witnesses had observed the attack— and none had even attempted to intervene. Although the attacker took more than half an hour to kill Kitty Genovese, not one of the 38 people who watched from the safety of their own apartments came out to assist her. Not one even lifted the telephone to call the police (Rosenthal, 1964). Preachers, professors, and news commentators sought the reasons for such apparently conscienceless and inhumane lack of intervention. Their conclusions ranged from “moral decay,” to “dehumanization produced by the urban environment,” to “alienation,” “anomie,” and “existential despair.” An analysis of the situation, however, suggests that factors other than apathy and indifference were involved. A person witnessing an emergency situation, particularly such a frightening and 1 This research was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grants GS1238 and GS1239. Susan Darley contributed materially to the design of the experiment and ran the subjects, and she and Thomas Moriarty analyzed the data. Richard Nisbett, Susan Millman, Andrew Gordon, and Norma Neiman helped in preparing the tape recordings. dangerous one as a stabbing, is in conflict. There are obvious humanitarian norms about helping the victim, but there are also rational and irrational fears about what might happen to a person who does intervene (Milgram & Hollander, 1964). “I didn’t want to get involved,” is a familiar comment, and behind it lies fears of physical harm, public embarrassment, involvement with police procedures, lost work days and jobs, and other unknown dangers. In certain circumstances, the norms favoring intervention may be weakened, leading bystanders to resolve the conflict in the direction of nonintervention. One of these circumstances may be the presence of other onlookers. For example, in the case above, each observer, by seeing lights and figures in other apartment house windows, knew that others were also watching. However, there was no way to tell how the other observers were reacting. These two facts provide several reasons why any individual may have delayed or failed to help. The responsibility for helping was diffused among the observers; there was also diffusion of any potential blame for not taking action; and finally, it was possible that somebody, unperceived, had already initiated helping action. When only one bystander is present in an emergency, if help is to come, it must come from him. Although he may choose to ignore it (out of concern for his personal safety, or desires “not to get involved”), any pres- 377 ,178 JOHN M. DARLEY AND BIBB LATANTC sure to intervene focuses uniquely on him. When there are several observers present, however, the pressures to intervene do not focus on any one of the observers; instead the responsibility for intervention is shared among all the onlookers and is not unique to any one. As a result, no one helps. A second possibility is that potential blame may be diffused. However much we may wish to think that an individual’s moral behavior is divorced from considerations of personal punishment or reward, there is both theory and evidence to the contrary (Aronfreed, 1964; Miller & Bollard, 1941, Whiting & Child, 19S3). It is perfectly reasonable to assume that, under circumstances of group responsibility for a punishable act, the punishment or blame that accrues to any one individual is often slight or nonexistent. Finally, if others are known to be present, but their behavior cannot be closely observed, any one bystander can assume that one of the other observers is already taking action to end the emergency. Therefore, his own intervention would be only redundant—perhaps harmfully or confusingly so. Thus, given the presence of other onlookers whose behavior cannot be observed, any given bystander can rationalize his own inaction by convincing himself that “somebody else must be doing something.” These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. To test this propostion it would be necessary to create a situation in which a realistic “emergency” could plausibly occur. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behavior during the emergency. Finally, the experimental situation should allow for the assessment of the speed and frequency of the subjects’ reaction to the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions. PROCEDURE Overview. A college student arrived in the laboratory and was ushered into an individual room from which a communication system would enable him to talk to the other participants. It was explained to him that he was to take part in a discussion about personal problems associated with college life and that the discussion would be held over the intercom system, rather than face-to-face, in order to avoid embarrassment by preserving the anonymity of the subjects. During the course of the discussion, one of the other subjects underwent what appeared to be a very serious nervous seizure similar to epilepsy. During the fit it was impossible for the subject to talk to the other discussants or to find out what, if anything, they were doing about the emergency. The dependent variable was the speed with which the subjects reported the emergency to the experimenter. The major independent variable was the number of people the subject thought to be in the discussion group. Subjects. Fifty-nine female and thirteen male students in introductory psychology courses at New York University were contacted to take part in an unspecified experiment as part of a class requirement. Method. Upon arriving for the experiment, the subject found himself in a long corridor with doors opening off it to several small rooms. An experimental assistant met him, took him to one of the rooms, and seated him at a table. After filling out a background information form, the subject was given a pair of headphones with an attached microphone and was told to listen for instructions. Over the intercom, the experimenter explained that he was interested in learning about the kinds of personal problems faced by normal college students in a high pressure, urban environment. He said that to avoid possible embarrassment about discussing personal problems with strangers several precautions had been taken. First, subjects would remain anonymous, which was why they had been placed in individual rooms rather than face-to-face. (The actual reason for this was to allow tape recorder simulation of the other subjects and the emergency.) Second, since the discussion might be inhibited by the presence of outside listeners, the experimenter would not listen to the initial discussion, but would get the subject’s reactions later, by questionnaire. (The real purpose of this was to remove the obviously responsible experimenter from the scene of the emergency.) The subjects were told that since the experimenter was not present, it was necessary to impose some organization. Each person would talk in turn, presenting his problems to the group. Next, each person in turn would comment on what the others had said, and finally, there would be a free discussion. A mechanical switching device would regulate this discussion sequence and each subject’s microphone would be on for about 2 minutes. While any microphone was on, all other microphones would be off. Only one subject, therefore, could be heard over the network at any given time. The subjects were thus led to realize when they later heard the seizure that only the victim’s microphone was on and that there was no way of determining what any of the other witnesses were doing, nor of discussing the event and its possible solution with the others. When these instructions had been given, the discussion began. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 379 In the discussion, the future victim spoke first, saying that he found it difficult to get adjusted to New York City and lo his studies. Very hesitantly, and with obvious embarrassment, he mentioned that he was prone to seizures, particularly when studying hard or taking exams. The other people, including the real subject, took their turns and discussed similar problems (minus, of course, the proneness to seizures). The naive subject talked last in the series, after the last prerecorded voice was played.2 When it was again the victim’s turn to talk, he made a few relatively calm comments, and then, growing increasingly louder and incoherent, he continued: I-er-um-I think I-I necd-er-if-if could-er-er-somebody er-er-er-er-er-er-er give me a liltle-er-give me a little help here because-er-I-er-I’m-er-erh-h-having a-a-a real problcm-er-right now and I-er-if somebody could help me out it would-it would-er-er s-s-sure be-sure be good . . . becausecr-there-er-cr-a cause I-er-I-uh-I’ve got a-a one of the-er-sei er-cr-things coming on and-and-and I could really-er-use some help so if somebody would-er-give me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er-er c-could somebody-er-er-help-er-uh-uh-uh (choking sounds). . . . I’m gonna die-er-er-I’m . . . gonna die-er-help-er-er-seizure-er-[chokes, then quiet]. The experimenter began timing the speed of the real subject’s response at the beginning of the victim’s speech. Informed judges listening to the tape have estimated that the victim’s increasingly louder and more disconnected ramblings clearly represented a breakdown about 70 seconds after the signal for the victim’s second speech. The victim’s speech was abruptly cut off 125 seconds after this signal, which could be interpreted by the subject as indicating that the time allotted for that speaker had elapsed and the switching circuits had switched away from him. Times reported in the results are measured from the start of the fit. Group size variable. The major independent variable of the study was the number of other people that the subject believed also heard the fit. By the assistant’s comments before the experiment, and also by the number of voices heard to speak in the first round of the group discussion, the subject was led lo believe that the discussion group was one of three sizes: either a two-person group (consisting of a person who would later have a fit and the real subject), a three-person group (consisting of the victim, the real subject, and one confederate voice), or a six-person group (consisting of the victim, the real subject, and four confederate voices). All the confederates’ voices were tape-recorded. Variations in group composition. Varying the kind as well as the number of bystanders present at an 2 To test whether the order in which the subjects spoke in the first discussion round significantly affected the subjects’ speed of report, the order in which the subjects spoke was varied (in the sixperson group). This had no significant or noticeable effect on the speed of the subjects’ reports. emergency should also vary the amount of responsibility felt by any single bystander. To test this, several variations of the three-person group were run. In one three-person condition, the taped bystander voice was that of a female, in another a male, and in the third a male who said that he was a premedical student who occasionally worked in the emergency wards at Bellevue hospital. In the above conditions, the subjects were female college students. In a final condition males drawn from the same introductory psychology subject pool were tested in a three-person female-bystander condition. Time to help. The major dependent variable was the time elapsed from the start of the victim’s fit until the subject left her experimental cubicle. When the subject left her room, she saw the experimental assistant seated at the end of the hall, and invariably went to the assistant. If 6 minutes elapsed without the subject having emerged from her room, the experiment was terminated. As soon as the subject reported the emergency, or after 6 minutes had elapsed, the experimental assistant disclosed the true nature of the experiment, and dealt with any emotions aroused in the subject. Finally the subject filled out a questionnaire concerning her thoughts and feelings during the emergency, and completed scales of Machiavellianism, anomie, and authoritarianism (Christie, 1964), a social desirability scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964), a social responsibility scale (Daniels & Berkowitz, 1964), and reported vital statistics and socioeconomic data. RESULTS Plausibility of Manipulation Judging by the subjects’ nervousness when they reported the fit to the experimenter, by their surprise when they discovered that the fit was simulated, and by comments they made during the fit (when they thought their microphones were off), one can conclude that almost all of the subjects perceived the fit as real. There were two exceptions in different experimental conditions, and the data for these subjects were dropped from the analysis. Effect of Group Size on Helping The number of bystanders that the subject perceived to be present had a major effect on the likelihood with which she would report the emergency (Table 1). Eighty-five percent of the subjects who thought they alone knew of the victim’s plight reported the seizure before the victim was cut off, only 31% of those who thought four other bystanders were present did so. 380 JOHN M. DARLF.V AND BIBB LATANIR TABLE 1 ‘KCTS 01? GROUPS SIZE ON LIKELIHOOD AND SPEED or RESPONSE Group size 2 (5 & victim) 3 (S, victim, & 1 other) 6 (.9, victim, & 4 others) N 13 26 13 % responding by end of fit 85 62 31 Time in sec. 52 93 166 Speed score .87 .72 .51 Note.—p value of diffciences: x 2 = 7.91, p < .02; 7” = 8.09, p < .01, for speed scores. Every one of the subjects in the twoperson groups, but only 62% of the subjects in the six-person groups, ever reported the emergency. The cumulative distributions of response times for groups of different perceived size (Figure 1) indicates that, by any point in time, more subjects from the two-person groups had responded than from the three-person groups, and more from the three-person groups than from the six-person groups. Ninety-five percent of all the subjects who ever responded did so within the first half of the time available to them. No subject who had not reported within 3 minutes after the fit ever did so. The shape of these distributions suggest that had the experiment been allowed to run for a considerably longer time, few additional subjects would have responded. Speed of Response To achieve a more detailed analysis of the results, each subject’s time score was transloo 12o 16O 2oo 24O 28O Seconds from Beginning of Fit FIG. 1. Cumulative distributions of helping responses. formed into a “speed” score by taking the reciprocal of the response time in seconds and multiplying by 100. The effect of this transformation was to deemphasize differences between longer time scores, thus reducing the contribution to the results of the arbitrary 6-minute limit on scores. A high speed score indicates a fast response. An analysis of variance indicates that the effect of group size is highly significant (/> < .01). Duncan multiple-range tests indicate that all but the two- and three-person groups differ significantly from one another (#<.OS). Victim’s Likelihood of Being Helped An individual subject is less likely to respond if he thinks that others are present. But what of the victim? Is the inhibition of the response of each individual strong enough to counteract the fact that with five onlookers there are five times as many people available to help? From the data of this experiment, it is possible mathematically to create hypothetical groups with one, two, or five observers.8 The calculations indicate that the victim is about equally likely to get help from one bystander as from two. The victim is considerably more likely to have gotten help from one or two observers than from five during the first minute of the fit. For instance, by 45 seconds after the start of the fit, the victim’s chances of having been helped by the single bystanders were about 50%, compared to none in the five observer condition. After the first minute, the likelihood of getting help from at least one person is high in all three conditions. Effect of Group Composition on Helping the Victim Several variations of the three-person group were run. In one pair of variations, the female subject thought the other bystander was either male or female; in another, she thought the other bystander was a premedical student who worked in an emergency ward at Bellevue hospital. As Table 2 shows, the 8 The formula for the probability that at least one person will help by a given time is 1 —(1—P) ” where n is the number of observers and P is the probability of a single individual (who thinks he is one of n observers) helping by that time. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 381 TABLE 2 EFI’ECTS OF GROUP COMPOSITION ON LIKKLIHOOH AND SPEED OF RESPONSE” Group composition Female S, male other Female S, female other Female 5, male medic other Male S, female other N 13 13 5 13 % responding by end of fit 62 62 100 69 Time in sec. 94 92 60 110 Speed score 74 71 77 68 » Three-person group, mule victim. variations in sex and medical competence of the other bystander had no important or detectable affect on speed of response. Subjects responded equally frequently and fast whether the other bystander was female, male, or medically experienced. Sex of the Subject and Speed of Response Coping with emergencies is often thought to be the duty of males, especially when females are present, but there was no evidence that this was the case in this study. Male subjects responded to the emergency with almost exactly the same speed as did females (Table 2). Reasons for Intervention or Nonintervention After the debriefing at the end of the experiment each subject was given a 15-item checklist and asked to check those thoughts which had “crossed your mind when you heard Subject 1 calling for help.” Whatever the condition, each subject checked very few thoughts, and there were no significant differences in number or kind of thoughts in the different experimental groups. The only thoughts checked by more than a few subjects were “I didn’t know what to do” (18 out of 65 subjects), “I thought it must be some sort of fake” (20 out of 65), and “I didn’t know exactly what was happening” (26 out of 65). It is possible that subjects were ashamed to report socially undesirable rationalizations, or, since the subjects checked the list after the true nature of the experiment had been explained to them, their memories might have been blurred. It is our impression, however, that most subjects checked few reasons because they had few coherent thoughts during the fit. We asked all subjects whether the presence or absence of other bystanders had entered their minds during the time that they were hearing the fit. Subjects in the three- and six-person groups reported that they were aware that other people were present, but they felt that this made no difference to their own behavior. Individual Difference Correlates of Speed of Report The correlations between speed of report and various individual differences on the personality and background measures were obtained by normalizing the distribution of report speeds within each experimental condition and pooling these scores across all conditions (« = 62-65). Personality measures showed no important or significant correlations with speed of reporting the emergency. In fact, only one of the 16 individual difference measures, the size of the community in which the subject grew up, correlated (r = -.26, p < .05) with the speed of helping. DISCUSSION Subjects, whether or not they intervened, believed the fit to be genuine and serious. “My God, he’s having a fit,” many subjects said to themselves (and were overheard via their microphones) at the onset of the fit. Others gasped or simply said “Oh.” Several of the male subjects swore. One subject said to herself, “It’s just my kind of luck, something has to happen to me!” Several subjects spoke aloud of their confusion about what course of action to take, “Oh God, what should I do?” When those subjects who intervened stepped out of their rooms, they found the experimental assistant down the hall. With some uncertainty, but without panic, they reported the situation. “Hey, I think Number 1 is very sick. He’s having a fit or something.” After ostensibly checking on the situation, the experimenter returned to report that “everything is under control.” The subjects accepted these assurances with obvious relief. Subjects who failed to report the emergency showed few signs of the apathy and 382 JOHN M. BARLEY AND BIBB LATANTC indifference thought to characterize “unresponsive bystanders.” When the experimenter entered her room to terminate the situation, the subject often asked if the victim was “all right.” “Is he being taken care of?” “He’s all right isn’t he?” Many of these subjects showed physical signs of nervousness; they often had trembling hands and sweating palms. If anything, they seemed more emotionally aroused than did the subjects who reported the emergency. Why, then, didn’t they respond? It is our impression that nonintervening subjects had not decided not to respond. Rather they were still in a state of indecision and conflict concerning whether to respond or not. The emotional behavior of these nonresponding subjects was a sign of their continuing conflict, a conflict that other subjects resolved by responding. The fit created a conflict situation of the avoidance-avoidance type. On the one hand, subjects worried about the guilt and shame they would feel if they did not help the person in distress. On the other hand, they were concerned not to make fools of themselves by overreacting, not to ruin the ongoing experiment by leaving their intercom, and not to destroy the anonymous nature of the situation which the experimenter had earlier stressed as important. For subjects in the two-person condition, the obvious distress of the victim and his need for help were so important that their conflict was easily resolved. For the subjects who knew there were other bystanders present, the cost of not helping was reduced and the conflict they were in more acute. Caught between the two negative alternatives of letting the victim continue to suffer or the costs of rushing in to help, the nonresponding bystanders vacillated between them rather than choosing not to respond. This distinction may be academic for the victim, since he got no help in either case, but it is an extremely important one for arriving at an understanding of the causes of bystanders’ failures to help. Although the subjects experienced stress and conflict during the experiment, their general reactions to it were highly positive. On a questionnaire administered after the experimenter had discussed the nature and purpose of the experiment, every single subject found the experiment either “interesting” or “very interesting” and was willing to participate in similar experiments in the future. All subjects felt they understood what the experiment was about and indicated that they thought the deceptions were necessary and justified. All but one felt they were better informed about the nature of psychological research in general. Male subjects reported the emergency no faster than did females. These results (or lack of them) seem to conflict with the Berkowitz, Klanderman, and Harris (1964) finding that males tend to assume more responsibility and take more initiative than females in giving help to dependent others. Also, females reacted equally fast when the other bystander was another female, a male, or even a person practiced in dealing with medical emergencies. The ineffectiveness of these manipulations of group composition cannot be explained by general insensitivity of the speed measure, since the group-size variable had a marked effect on report speed. It might be helpful in understanding this lack of difference to distinguish two general classes of intervention in emergency situations: direct and reportorial. Direct intervention (breaking up a fight, extinguishing a fire, swimming out to save a drowner) often requires skill, knowledge, or physical power. It may involve danger. American cultural norms and Berkowitz’s results seem to suggest that males are more responsible than females for this kind of direct intervention. A second way of dealing with an emergency is to report it to someone qualified to handle it, such as the police. For this kind of intervention, there seem to be no norms requiring male action. In the present study, subjects clearly intended to report the emergency rather than take direct action. For such indirect intervention, sex or medical competence does not appear to affect one’s qualifications or responsibilities. Anybody, male or female, medically trained or not, can find the experimenter. In this study, no subject was able to tell how the other subjects reacted to the fit. (Indeed, there were no other subjects actually present.) The effects of group size on BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 383 speed of helping, therefore, are due simply to the perceived presence of others rather than to the influence of their actions. This means that the experimental situation is unlike emergencies, such as a fire, in which bystanders interact with each other. It is, however, similar to emergencies, such as the Genovese murder, in which spectators knew others were also watching but were prevented by walls between them from communication that might have counteracted the diffusion of responsibility. The present results create serious difficulties for one class of commonly given explanations for the failure of bystanders to intervene in actual emergencies, those involving apathy or indifference. These explanations generally assert that people who fail to intervene are somehow different in kind from the rest of us, that they ar

Discussion post 1

A Pirandellian Prison

Please go to the following weblink:

Zimbardo, P. G., Haney, C., Banks, C., & Jaffe, D. (1973, April 8). A Pirandellian prison: The mind is a formidable jailer.  New York Times Magazine, pp. 38-60.  http://www.prisonexp.org/pdf/pirandellian.pdf

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question),  procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions?  Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results?  Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

Asch and Conformity 

Please go to this study. http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/0155060678_rathus/ps/ps18.html

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

  The Abiline Paradox:  The Management of Agreement

Whereas, most of us are familiar with the Bystander Effect and Zimbardo’s Prison Study, this study is very different for those of us who might not have had any courses in organizational psychology.  As you will see many of the concepts we have learned early on in introductory psychology, social psychology and other courses come into play in this case.  See what you think.

Please click on the following link and enter your last name and ID number.

Harvey, J. B. (1974). The Abilene Paradox: The management of agreement.Organizational Dynamics, 3 (1), 63 – 80. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(74)90005-9 http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5140990&site=eds-live&scope=site

Your assignment:

I found the list of objectives for this article on page 66 would be a good starting point for our discussion.  You need not discuss all of these issues in depth, but try to hit the high points of 4 or 5 if you can. I have rephrased these for you below.   Also, please relate some of the concepts you have learned in your other courses whenever you can.

1) What is the Abilene paradox?  Describe some of the the symptoms of organizations caught in the paradox.

2) Tell us about one of the case studies that Harvey (1974) describes on pages 67-69.

3) Harvey discusses 5 factors when analyzing the paradox.  Discuss at least two of these and their importance in the paradox.

4) On page 73, Harvey discusses several terms that describe the risk factors of his model (A Possible Abilene Bypass). Discuss several of these as they relate to his model and to your understanding of these terms in social psychology.

5) How would someone go about diagnosing the paradox?  What suggestions does Harvey make?

6) What are his recommendations for coping with the paradox?

Your thoughts, and comments, please.  

Leiby Kletzy’s Abduction and Homicide

Read the case at:  http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/files/social_reaction.pdf

First, provide a short description of the case.

Then, identify and explain at least 4 social psychological principles at work in this case.

For some ideas, see the worksheets following the case.

Bystander Intervention  

Please go to this study. You sill need to enter your last name and ID number and then download the study.

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=16645191&site=eds-live&scope=site

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383.  http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=16645191&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

STUDY……

BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES: DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY3 JOHN M. BARLEY New York University BIBB LATANfi Columbia University Ss overheard an epileptic seizure. They believed either that they alone heard the emergency, or that 1 or 4 unseen others were also present. As predicted the presence of other bystanders reduced the individual’s feelings of personal responsibility and lowered his speed of reporting (p < .01). In groups of size 3, males reported no faster than females, and females reported no slower when the 1 other bystander was a male rather than a female. In general, personality and background measures were not predictive of helping. Bystander inaction in real-life emergencies is often explained by “apathy,” “alienation,” and “anomie.” This experiment suggests that the explanation may lie more in the bystander’s response to other observers than in his indifference to the victim. Several years ago, a young woman was stabbed to death in the middle of a street in a residential section of New York City. Although such murders are not entirely routine, the incident received little public attention until several weeks later when the New York Times disclosed another side to the case: at least 38 witnesses had observed the attack— and none had even attempted to intervene. Although the attacker took more than half an hour to kill Kitty Genovese, not one of the 38 people who watched from the safety of their own apartments came out to assist her. Not one even lifted the telephone to call the police (Rosenthal, 1964). Preachers, professors, and news commentators sought the reasons for such apparently conscienceless and inhumane lack of intervention. Their conclusions ranged from “moral decay,” to “dehumanization produced by the urban environment,” to “alienation,” “anomie,” and “existential despair.” An analysis of the situation, however, suggests that factors other than apathy and indifference were involved. A person witnessing an emergency situation, particularly such a frightening and 1 This research was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grants GS1238 and GS1239. Susan Darley contributed materially to the design of the experiment and ran the subjects, and she and Thomas Moriarty analyzed the data. Richard Nisbett, Susan Millman, Andrew Gordon, and Norma Neiman helped in preparing the tape recordings. dangerous one as a stabbing, is in conflict. There are obvious humanitarian norms about helping the victim, but there are also rational and irrational fears about what might happen to a person who does intervene (Milgram & Hollander, 1964). “I didn’t want to get involved,” is a familiar comment, and behind it lies fears of physical harm, public embarrassment, involvement with police procedures, lost work days and jobs, and other unknown dangers. In certain circumstances, the norms favoring intervention may be weakened, leading bystanders to resolve the conflict in the direction of nonintervention. One of these circumstances may be the presence of other onlookers. For example, in the case above, each observer, by seeing lights and figures in other apartment house windows, knew that others were also watching. However, there was no way to tell how the other observers were reacting. These two facts provide several reasons why any individual may have delayed or failed to help. The responsibility for helping was diffused among the observers; there was also diffusion of any potential blame for not taking action; and finally, it was possible that somebody, unperceived, had already initiated helping action. When only one bystander is present in an emergency, if help is to come, it must come from him. Although he may choose to ignore it (out of concern for his personal safety, or desires “not to get involved”), any pres- 377 ,178 JOHN M. DARLEY AND BIBB LATANTC sure to intervene focuses uniquely on him. When there are several observers present, however, the pressures to intervene do not focus on any one of the observers; instead the responsibility for intervention is shared among all the onlookers and is not unique to any one. As a result, no one helps. A second possibility is that potential blame may be diffused. However much we may wish to think that an individual’s moral behavior is divorced from considerations of personal punishment or reward, there is both theory and evidence to the contrary (Aronfreed, 1964; Miller & Bollard, 1941, Whiting & Child, 19S3). It is perfectly reasonable to assume that, under circumstances of group responsibility for a punishable act, the punishment or blame that accrues to any one individual is often slight or nonexistent. Finally, if others are known to be present, but their behavior cannot be closely observed, any one bystander can assume that one of the other observers is already taking action to end the emergency. Therefore, his own intervention would be only redundant—perhaps harmfully or confusingly so. Thus, given the presence of other onlookers whose behavior cannot be observed, any given bystander can rationalize his own inaction by convincing himself that “somebody else must be doing something.” These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. To test this propostion it would be necessary to create a situation in which a realistic “emergency” could plausibly occur. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behavior during the emergency. Finally, the experimental situation should allow for the assessment of the speed and frequency of the subjects’ reaction to the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions. PROCEDURE Overview. A college student arrived in the laboratory and was ushered into an individual room from which a communication system would enable him to talk to the other participants. It was explained to him that he was to take part in a discussion about personal problems associated with college life and that the discussion would be held over the intercom system, rather than face-to-face, in order to avoid embarrassment by preserving the anonymity of the subjects. During the course of the discussion, one of the other subjects underwent what appeared to be a very serious nervous seizure similar to epilepsy. During the fit it was impossible for the subject to talk to the other discussants or to find out what, if anything, they were doing about the emergency. The dependent variable was the speed with which the subjects reported the emergency to the experimenter. The major independent variable was the number of people the subject thought to be in the discussion group. Subjects. Fifty-nine female and thirteen male students in introductory psychology courses at New York University were contacted to take part in an unspecified experiment as part of a class requirement. Method. Upon arriving for the experiment, the subject found himself in a long corridor with doors opening off it to several small rooms. An experimental assistant met him, took him to one of the rooms, and seated him at a table. After filling out a background information form, the subject was given a pair of headphones with an attached microphone and was told to listen for instructions. Over the intercom, the experimenter explained that he was interested in learning about the kinds of personal problems faced by normal college students in a high pressure, urban environment. He said that to avoid possible embarrassment about discussing personal problems with strangers several precautions had been taken. First, subjects would remain anonymous, which was why they had been placed in individual rooms rather than face-to-face. (The actual reason for this was to allow tape recorder simulation of the other subjects and the emergency.) Second, since the discussion might be inhibited by the presence of outside listeners, the experimenter would not listen to the initial discussion, but would get the subject’s reactions later, by questionnaire. (The real purpose of this was to remove the obviously responsible experimenter from the scene of the emergency.) The subjects were told that since the experimenter was not present, it was necessary to impose some organization. Each person would talk in turn, presenting his problems to the group. Next, each person in turn would comment on what the others had said, and finally, there would be a free discussion. A mechanical switching device would regulate this discussion sequence and each subject’s microphone would be on for about 2 minutes. While any microphone was on, all other microphones would be off. Only one subject, therefore, could be heard over the network at any given time. The subjects were thus led to realize when they later heard the seizure that only the victim’s microphone was on and that there was no way of determining what any of the other witnesses were doing, nor of discussing the event and its possible solution with the others. When these instructions had been given, the discussion began. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 379 In the discussion, the future victim spoke first, saying that he found it difficult to get adjusted to New York City and lo his studies. Very hesitantly, and with obvious embarrassment, he mentioned that he was prone to seizures, particularly when studying hard or taking exams. The other people, including the real subject, took their turns and discussed similar problems (minus, of course, the proneness to seizures). The naive subject talked last in the series, after the last prerecorded voice was played.2 When it was again the victim’s turn to talk, he made a few relatively calm comments, and then, growing increasingly louder and incoherent, he continued: I-er-um-I think I-I necd-er-if-if could-er-er-somebody er-er-er-er-er-er-er give me a liltle-er-give me a little help here because-er-I-er-I’m-er-erh-h-having a-a-a real problcm-er-right now and I-er-if somebody could help me out it would-it would-er-er s-s-sure be-sure be good . . . becausecr-there-er-cr-a cause I-er-I-uh-I’ve got a-a one of the-er-sei er-cr-things coming on and-and-and I could really-er-use some help so if somebody would-er-give me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er-er c-could somebody-er-er-help-er-uh-uh-uh (choking sounds). . . . I’m gonna die-er-er-I’m . . . gonna die-er-help-er-er-seizure-er-[chokes, then quiet]. The experimenter began timing the speed of the real subject’s response at the beginning of the victim’s speech. Informed judges listening to the tape have estimated that the victim’s increasingly louder and more disconnected ramblings clearly represented a breakdown about 70 seconds after the signal for the victim’s second speech. The victim’s speech was abruptly cut off 125 seconds after this signal, which could be interpreted by the subject as indicating that the time allotted for that speaker had elapsed and the switching circuits had switched away from him. Times reported in the results are measured from the start of the fit. Group size variable. The major independent variable of the study was the number of other people that the subject believed also heard the fit. By the assistant’s comments before the experiment, and also by the number of voices heard to speak in the first round of the group discussion, the subject was led lo believe that the discussion group was one of three sizes: either a two-person group (consisting of a person who would later have a fit and the real subject), a three-person group (consisting of the victim, the real subject, and one confederate voice), or a six-person group (consisting of the victim, the real subject, and four confederate voices). All the confederates’ voices were tape-recorded. Variations in group composition. Varying the kind as well as the number of bystanders present at an 2 To test whether the order in which the subjects spoke in the first discussion round significantly affected the subjects’ speed of report, the order in which the subjects spoke was varied (in the sixperson group). This had no significant or noticeable effect on the speed of the subjects’ reports. emergency should also vary the amount of responsibility felt by any single bystander. To test this, several variations of the three-person group were run. In one three-person condition, the taped bystander voice was that of a female, in another a male, and in the third a male who said that he was a premedical student who occasionally worked in the emergency wards at Bellevue hospital. In the above conditions, the subjects were female college students. In a final condition males drawn from the same introductory psychology subject pool were tested in a three-person female-bystander condition. Time to help. The major dependent variable was the time elapsed from the start of the victim’s fit until the subject left her experimental cubicle. When the subject left her room, she saw the experimental assistant seated at the end of the hall, and invariably went to the assistant. If 6 minutes elapsed without the subject having emerged from her room, the experiment was terminated. As soon as the subject reported the emergency, or after 6 minutes had elapsed, the experimental assistant disclosed the true nature of the experiment, and dealt with any emotions aroused in the subject. Finally the subject filled out a questionnaire concerning her thoughts and feelings during the emergency, and completed scales of Machiavellianism, anomie, and authoritarianism (Christie, 1964), a social desirability scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964), a social responsibility scale (Daniels & Berkowitz, 1964), and reported vital statistics and socioeconomic data. RESULTS Plausibility of Manipulation Judging by the subjects’ nervousness when they reported the fit to the experimenter, by their surprise when they discovered that the fit was simulated, and by comments they made during the fit (when they thought their microphones were off), one can conclude that almost all of the subjects perceived the fit as real. There were two exceptions in different experimental conditions, and the data for these subjects were dropped from the analysis. Effect of Group Size on Helping The number of bystanders that the subject perceived to be present had a major effect on the likelihood with which she would report the emergency (Table 1). Eighty-five percent of the subjects who thought they alone knew of the victim’s plight reported the seizure before the victim was cut off, only 31% of those who thought four other bystanders were present did so. 380 JOHN M. DARLF.V AND BIBB LATANIR TABLE 1 ‘KCTS 01? GROUPS SIZE ON LIKELIHOOD AND SPEED or RESPONSE Group size 2 (5 & victim) 3 (S, victim, & 1 other) 6 (.9, victim, & 4 others) N 13 26 13 % responding by end of fit 85 62 31 Time in sec. 52 93 166 Speed score .87 .72 .51 Note.—p value of diffciences: x 2 = 7.91, p < .02; 7” = 8.09, p < .01, for speed scores. Every one of the subjects in the twoperson groups, but only 62% of the subjects in the six-person groups, ever reported the emergency. The cumulative distributions of response times for groups of different perceived size (Figure 1) indicates that, by any point in time, more subjects from the two-person groups had responded than from the three-person groups, and more from the three-person groups than from the six-person groups. Ninety-five percent of all the subjects who ever responded did so within the first half of the time available to them. No subject who had not reported within 3 minutes after the fit ever did so. The shape of these distributions suggest that had the experiment been allowed to run for a considerably longer time, few additional subjects would have responded. Speed of Response To achieve a more detailed analysis of the results, each subject’s time score was transloo 12o 16O 2oo 24O 28O Seconds from Beginning of Fit FIG. 1. Cumulative distributions of helping responses. formed into a “speed” score by taking the reciprocal of the response time in seconds and multiplying by 100. The effect of this transformation was to deemphasize differences between longer time scores, thus reducing the contribution to the results of the arbitrary 6-minute limit on scores. A high speed score indicates a fast response. An analysis of variance indicates that the effect of group size is highly significant (/> < .01). Duncan multiple-range tests indicate that all but the two- and three-person groups differ significantly from one another (#<.OS). Victim’s Likelihood of Being Helped An individual subject is less likely to respond if he thinks that others are present. But what of the victim? Is the inhibition of the response of each individual strong enough to counteract the fact that with five onlookers there are five times as many people available to help? From the data of this experiment, it is possible mathematically to create hypothetical groups with one, two, or five observers.8 The calculations indicate that the victim is about equally likely to get help from one bystander as from two. The victim is considerably more likely to have gotten help from one or two observers than from five during the first minute of the fit. For instance, by 45 seconds after the start of the fit, the victim’s chances of having been helped by the single bystanders were about 50%, compared to none in the five observer condition. After the first minute, the likelihood of getting help from at least one person is high in all three conditions. Effect of Group Composition on Helping the Victim Several variations of the three-person group were run. In one pair of variations, the female subject thought the other bystander was either male or female; in another, she thought the other bystander was a premedical student who worked in an emergency ward at Bellevue hospital. As Table 2 shows, the 8 The formula for the probability that at least one person will help by a given time is 1 —(1—P) ” where n is the number of observers and P is the probability of a single individual (who thinks he is one of n observers) helping by that time. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 381 TABLE 2 EFI’ECTS OF GROUP COMPOSITION ON LIKKLIHOOH AND SPEED OF RESPONSE” Group composition Female S, male other Female S, female other Female 5, male medic other Male S, female other N 13 13 5 13 % responding by end of fit 62 62 100 69 Time in sec. 94 92 60 110 Speed score 74 71 77 68 » Three-person group, mule victim. variations in sex and medical competence of the other bystander had no important or detectable affect on speed of response. Subjects responded equally frequently and fast whether the other bystander was female, male, or medically experienced. Sex of the Subject and Speed of Response Coping with emergencies is often thought to be the duty of males, especially when females are present, but there was no evidence that this was the case in this study. Male subjects responded to the emergency with almost exactly the same speed as did females (Table 2). Reasons for Intervention or Nonintervention After the debriefing at the end of the experiment each subject was given a 15-item checklist and asked to check those thoughts which had “crossed your mind when you heard Subject 1 calling for help.” Whatever the condition, each subject checked very few thoughts, and there were no significant differences in number or kind of thoughts in the different experimental groups. The only thoughts checked by more than a few subjects were “I didn’t know what to do” (18 out of 65 subjects), “I thought it must be some sort of fake” (20 out of 65), and “I didn’t know exactly what was happening” (26 out of 65). It is possible that subjects were ashamed to report socially undesirable rationalizations, or, since the subjects checked the list after the true nature of the experiment had been explained to them, their memories might have been blurred. It is our impression, however, that most subjects checked few reasons because they had few coherent thoughts during the fit. We asked all subjects whether the presence or absence of other bystanders had entered their minds during the time that they were hearing the fit. Subjects in the three- and six-person groups reported that they were aware that other people were present, but they felt that this made no difference to their own behavior. Individual Difference Correlates of Speed of Report The correlations between speed of report and various individual differences on the personality and background measures were obtained by normalizing the distribution of report speeds within each experimental condition and pooling these scores across all conditions (« = 62-65). Personality measures showed no important or significant correlations with speed of reporting the emergency. In fact, only one of the 16 individual difference measures, the size of the community in which the subject grew up, correlated (r = -.26, p < .05) with the speed of helping. DISCUSSION Subjects, whether or not they intervened, believed the fit to be genuine and serious. “My God, he’s having a fit,” many subjects said to themselves (and were overheard via their microphones) at the onset of the fit. Others gasped or simply said “Oh.” Several of the male subjects swore. One subject said to herself, “It’s just my kind of luck, something has to happen to me!” Several subjects spoke aloud of their confusion about what course of action to take, “Oh God, what should I do?” When those subjects who intervened stepped out of their rooms, they found the experimental assistant down the hall. With some uncertainty, but without panic, they reported the situation. “Hey, I think Number 1 is very sick. He’s having a fit or something.” After ostensibly checking on the situation, the experimenter returned to report that “everything is under control.” The subjects accepted these assurances with obvious relief. Subjects who failed to report the emergency showed few signs of the apathy and 382 JOHN M. BARLEY AND BIBB LATANTC indifference thought to characterize “unresponsive bystanders.” When the experimenter entered her room to terminate the situation, the subject often asked if the victim was “all right.” “Is he being taken care of?” “He’s all right isn’t he?” Many of these subjects showed physical signs of nervousness; they often had trembling hands and sweating palms. If anything, they seemed more emotionally aroused than did the subjects who reported the emergency. Why, then, didn’t they respond? It is our impression that nonintervening subjects had not decided not to respond. Rather they were still in a state of indecision and conflict concerning whether to respond or not. The emotional behavior of these nonresponding subjects was a sign of their continuing conflict, a conflict that other subjects resolved by responding. The fit created a conflict situation of the avoidance-avoidance type. On the one hand, subjects worried about the guilt and shame they would feel if they did not help the person in distress. On the other hand, they were concerned not to make fools of themselves by overreacting, not to ruin the ongoing experiment by leaving their intercom, and not to destroy the anonymous nature of the situation which the experimenter had earlier stressed as important. For subjects in the two-person condition, the obvious distress of the victim and his need for help were so important that their conflict was easily resolved. For the subjects who knew there were other bystanders present, the cost of not helping was reduced and the conflict they were in more acute. Caught between the two negative alternatives of letting the victim continue to suffer or the costs of rushing in to help, the nonresponding bystanders vacillated between them rather than choosing not to respond. This distinction may be academic for the victim, since he got no help in either case, but it is an extremely important one for arriving at an understanding of the causes of bystanders’ failures to help. Although the subjects experienced stress and conflict during the experiment, their general reactions to it were highly positive. On a questionnaire administered after the experimenter had discussed the nature and purpose of the experiment, every single subject found the experiment either “interesting” or “very interesting” and was willing to participate in similar experiments in the future. All subjects felt they understood what the experiment was about and indicated that they thought the deceptions were necessary and justified. All but one felt they were better informed about the nature of psychological research in general. Male subjects reported the emergency no faster than did females. These results (or lack of them) seem to conflict with the Berkowitz, Klanderman, and Harris (1964) finding that males tend to assume more responsibility and take more initiative than females in giving help to dependent others. Also, females reacted equally fast when the other bystander was another female, a male, or even a person practiced in dealing with medical emergencies. The ineffectiveness of these manipulations of group composition cannot be explained by general insensitivity of the speed measure, since the group-size variable had a marked effect on report speed. It might be helpful in understanding this lack of difference to distinguish two general classes of intervention in emergency situations: direct and reportorial. Direct intervention (breaking up a fight, extinguishing a fire, swimming out to save a drowner) often requires skill, knowledge, or physical power. It may involve danger. American cultural norms and Berkowitz’s results seem to suggest that males are more responsible than females for this kind of direct intervention. A second way of dealing with an emergency is to report it to someone qualified to handle it, such as the police. For this kind of intervention, there seem to be no norms requiring male action. In the present study, subjects clearly intended to report the emergency rather than take direct action. For such indirect intervention, sex or medical competence does not appear to affect one’s qualifications or responsibilities. Anybody, male or female, medically trained or not, can find the experimenter. In this study, no subject was able to tell how the other subjects reacted to the fit. (Indeed, there were no other subjects actually present.) The effects of group size on BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 383 speed of helping, therefore, are due simply to the perceived presence of others rather than to the influence of their actions. This means that the experimental situation is unlike emergencies, such as a fire, in which bystanders interact with each other. It is, however, similar to emergencies, such as the Genovese murder, in which spectators knew others were also watching but were prevented by walls between them from communication that might have counteracted the diffusion of responsibility. The present results create serious difficulties for one class of commonly given explanations for the failure of bystanders to intervene in actual emergencies, those involving apathy or indifference. These explanations generally assert that people who fail to intervene are somehow different in kind from the rest of us, that they ar

Can anybody do this by Friday 9-22-17

  Psychology Work

Lctubman Field: Psychology Posted: 5 Days Ago Due: 18/09/2017 Budget:  $100

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DUE 9-18-17 

Final Project

For your Final Project, you will create a website that showcases the skills you have gained throughout your psychology program.  Your website will consist of the following elements: a homepage, a literature review, expert opinions, résumés, a case study, and a list of pertinent websites.  Each of these sections will be its own tab on the website.  When complete, you may choose to use this website after graduation as a means to showcase your abilities to potential employers and/or graduate schools.    

To begin, review the elements required for each section of your website below.  

Next, visit the Wix.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website to familiarize yourself with this technology.  Scroll down on the webpage and click the pink arrow to view a quick tour video of the website platform.  Note: This site is best viewed using either the Chrome or Firefox web browsers.  Refer to the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for step-by-step instructions on setting up your website.   

Wix_com_Quick_Start_Guide.pdf 

If you experience any technical difficulties, please visit the Wix Support Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The technical support offered through your Student Portal will not be able to assist you with the Wix website.  When you are ready to create your website, click the Start Now button to register and begin building.  If you are unable to utilize the Wix platform to complete this assignment and you have already watched the tutorial, read through the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide, and contacted the Wix Support Center, please contact your instructor.    

It is highly recommended that you complete any and all written work in a separate document first and then cut and paste the required content into your webpage. This will allow you to edit and save your work separate from the website, should anything occur which causes the website to fail.  Additionally, you will be able to work on your content without having to remain connected to the internet and it may be easier to develop and edit your content in Word, prior to publishing it on your website.   

Sections of the Final Project will be completed within the course weeks and will be revised for inclusion in this project. Carefully review all suggestions and comments from the instructor and/or your classmates before including that work within the content of your website.

Clearly label the website as your course project. Although it will not be searchable to the general public, it will be publicly available and anyone who is given your specific site link will be able to view it.

Copy and paste the URL to your website into a Word document for submission. Once you have received your final grade for this course, you have the option of deleting this website through your account with Wix.com.

Creating the Website

The website:
Must be named with the following convention: your last name + PSY496 Final Project. Example: Smith PSY496 Final Project.  Must include six tabs with the following headings and information. Watch the screencast video below to assist you with setting up your required tabs. Home Page
Briefly introduce yourself and provide information regarding your professional background. Summarize your experiences within the Psychology program at Ashford University and what you hope to do upon graduation. You may include a professional photograph as well. Literature Review
Create a brief literature review that presents a fair and comprehensive analysis of relevant literature pertaining to the topic you chose in Week One. This page must include the following:
A brief introduction of the topic and its relevance (300 to 500 words). Three to five peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research. Each of the articles must directly relate to your chosen topic. A one- to two-paragraph (500 to750 words total) analysis and summary for each article. A reference list at the bottom of the page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Expert Opinions
Begin with the work you completed for the Mental Health Disciplines discussion in Week Three. In this section, you will demonstrate your awareness of the psychological career alternatives in a community setting and take on the role of two experts in different fields of psychology.  You will also evaluate contributions of psychological research in the applied context of these experts and discuss methodological issues unique to their areas of psychological research.    Take into consideration the comments your classmates and your instructor made on your discussion post. Include information from at least two peer-reviewed articles of your choosing that were published within the last five years to substantiate your experts’ claims.  The sources may not be any of those that are listed within this course.  For information on how to generate search terms for specific resources, visit the Ashford University Library website. Make any necessary changes to your presentation and create a new oral video presentation using a screencast program such as Jing and Screencast-O-Matic. You may also use YouTube or a voiceover PowerPoint saved as a video file with audio. Using the instructions on the Wix.com platform, embed the video of your oral presentation (screencast or video) in the Expert Opinions page of your website. As an alternative to embedding your video, you may copy and paste a working URL on the Expert Opinions page. Résumés
Begin with the work you completed for the Develop Professional Résumés assignment in Week Three. Based on the feedback from your instructor, make the recommended changes to the résumés you created for the two experts from the Presentation by Experts discussion in Week Three and the Expert Opinions web page you created.
Next, create your own professional résumé, that includes brief descriptions of the major duties associated with any relevant work experience you have.
Your résumé should appear first on the page followed by the résumés you created for the experts. To begin constructing your personal résumé, utilize the Resume Builder tool provided by Ashford University. This will allow you to create drafts of your résumé so that you may revise and refine your assignments before submitting them. Because your final project will be available for public viewing, do not include your actual personal contact information (i.e., address, phone number, email). To utilize this tool: Log into the Ashford University Student Portal Click on Job Search & Resume Builder link under Career Services Go to the My Documents Tab Select the Resume Builder Tab Create, save and edit these résumés to meet your assignment guidelines. Case Study
Begin with the work you completed for the Case Study: Evaluating Ashford University Institutional & Program Outcomes assignment in Week One. Review the feedback you received from your instructor and then create a case study that takes on the role you did not pursue. If you used your own story or that of a willing volunteer for the original assignment, then you will create a case study for a fictitious character. If you created a character for the case study in the original assignment, then you will use your own story or that of a willing adult volunteer. In this section, you will:
Create a 750- to 1000-word case study of a real (either yourself or a willing adult volunteer) or fictitious person who has developed the competencies of their academic program at Ashford University.   Evaluate your real or fictitious person’s learning within the program as it contributes to the overall attainment of the institutional outcomes. Include at least one personal life example and one career example of applying the competencies to resolve personal challenges and an ethical dilemma (e.g., a client or research subject reveals compromising information about a friend or family member who also happens to be someone you know in a personal/social context). Create or describe a scenario in which the person wrestles with an issue related to the assigned research topic in her or his personal and/or professional life. Be specific in your discussion of the scenario and provide details demonstrating professional problem solving on the part of the person in your case study. Include a section wherein your fictitious person or you articulate a personal point of view, evaluate evidence, determine options for responding and evaluate the pros and cons of the options prior to making a decision about a course of action within the scenario. Conclude with how the problem was resolved and what the person learned while at Ashford University that assisted in an effective resolution. Websites
Create an annotated list of 10 to 12 reputable, professional websites (e.g., government agencies, professional organizations, professional associations…) that are relevant to psychological research and practice. Commercial or non-academic websites may not be used for this assignment. Consider the merits of each website.  Based on your knowledge of scholarly applications of psychological research, evaluate the use of scholarly applied psychological research and analyze the interpretations that are presented on each site.  For information on how to evaluate web resources, visit the Ashford University Library website.   The list should be in alphabetical order with each website cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The annotations should be four to five sentences long and reflect the relevance and usefulness of each website in terms of your topics of psychological research and your professional needs.

In addition, your website must:
Include a footer with the date submitted (in Copyright section). Address the topics of each page with critical thought. Use the number of peer-reviewed sources listed with the instructions for each web page. Document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.   Include a separate reference section at the bottom of each web page, for the sources used on that page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Edit question’s body 2psy496assignment1.docx Resume1psy496.docx discussion1week3.pptx  Psychology Work

Lctubman Field: Psychology Posted: 5 Days Ago Due: 18/09/2017 Budget:  $100

Report Issue

DUE 9-18-17 

Final Project

For your Final Project, you will create a website that showcases the skills you have gained throughout your psychology program.  Your website will consist of the following elements: a homepage, a literature review, expert opinions, résumés, a case study, and a list of pertinent websites.  Each of these sections will be its own tab on the website.  When complete, you may choose to use this website after graduation as a means to showcase your abilities to potential employers and/or graduate schools.    

To begin, review the elements required for each section of your website below.  

Next, visit the Wix.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website to familiarize yourself with this technology.  Scroll down on the webpage and click the pink arrow to view a quick tour video of the website platform.  Note: This site is best viewed using either the Chrome or Firefox web browsers.  Refer to the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for step-by-step instructions on setting up your website.   

Wix_com_Quick_Start_Guide.pdf 

If you experience any technical difficulties, please visit the Wix Support Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The technical support offered through your Student Portal will not be able to assist you with the Wix website.  When you are ready to create your website, click the Start Now button to register and begin building.  If you are unable to utilize the Wix platform to complete this assignment and you have already watched the tutorial, read through the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide, and contacted the Wix Support Center, please contact your instructor.    

It is highly recommended that you complete any and all written work in a separate document first and then cut and paste the required content into your webpage. This will allow you to edit and save your work separate from the website, should anything occur which causes the website to fail.  Additionally, you will be able to work on your content without having to remain connected to the internet and it may be easier to develop and edit your content in Word, prior to publishing it on your website.   

Sections of the Final Project will be completed within the course weeks and will be revised for inclusion in this project. Carefully review all suggestions and comments from the instructor and/or your classmates before including that work within the content of your website.

Clearly label the website as your course project. Although it will not be searchable to the general public, it will be publicly available and anyone who is given your specific site link will be able to view it.

Copy and paste the URL to your website into a Word document for submission. Once you have received your final grade for this course, you have the option of deleting this website through your account with Wix.com.

Creating the Website

The website:
Must be named with the following convention: your last name + PSY496 Final Project. Example: Smith PSY496 Final Project.  Must include six tabs with the following headings and information. Watch the screencast video below to assist you with setting up your required tabs. Home Page
Briefly introduce yourself and provide information regarding your professional background. Summarize your experiences within the Psychology program at Ashford University and what you hope to do upon graduation. You may include a professional photograph as well. Literature Review
Create a brief literature review that presents a fair and comprehensive analysis of relevant literature pertaining to the topic you chose in Week One. This page must include the following:
A brief introduction of the topic and its relevance (300 to 500 words). Three to five peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research. Each of the articles must directly relate to your chosen topic. A one- to two-paragraph (500 to750 words total) analysis and summary for each article. A reference list at the bottom of the page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Expert Opinions
Begin with the work you completed for the Mental Health Disciplines discussion in Week Three. In this section, you will demonstrate your awareness of the psychological career alternatives in a community setting and take on the role of two experts in different fields of psychology.  You will also evaluate contributions of psychological research in the applied context of these experts and discuss methodological issues unique to their areas of psychological research.    Take into consideration the comments your classmates and your instructor made on your discussion post. Include information from at least two peer-reviewed articles of your choosing that were published within the last five years to substantiate your experts’ claims.  The sources may not be any of those that are listed within this course.  For information on how to generate search terms for specific resources, visit the Ashford University Library website. Make any necessary changes to your presentation and create a new oral video presentation using a screencast program such as Jing and Screencast-O-Matic. You may also use YouTube or a voiceover PowerPoint saved as a video file with audio. Using the instructions on the Wix.com platform, embed the video of your oral presentation (screencast or video) in the Expert Opinions page of your website. As an alternative to embedding your video, you may copy and paste a working URL on the Expert Opinions page. Résumés
Begin with the work you completed for the Develop Professional Résumés assignment in Week Three. Based on the feedback from your instructor, make the recommended changes to the résumés you created for the two experts from the Presentation by Experts discussion in Week Three and the Expert Opinions web page you created.
Next, create your own professional résumé, that includes brief descriptions of the major duties associated with any relevant work experience you have.
Your résumé should appear first on the page followed by the résumés you created for the experts. To begin constructing your personal résumé, utilize the Resume Builder tool provided by Ashford University. This will allow you to create drafts of your résumé so that you may revise and refine your assignments before submitting them. Because your final project will be available for public viewing, do not include your actual personal contact information (i.e., address, phone number, email). To utilize this tool: Log into the Ashford University Student Portal Click on Job Search & Resume Builder link under Career Services Go to the My Documents Tab Select the Resume Builder Tab Create, save and edit these résumés to meet your assignment guidelines. Case Study
Begin with the work you completed for the Case Study: Evaluating Ashford University Institutional & Program Outcomes assignment in Week One. Review the feedback you received from your instructor and then create a case study that takes on the role you did not pursue. If you used your own story or that of a willing volunteer for the original assignment, then you will create a case study for a fictitious character. If you created a character for the case study in the original assignment, then you will use your own story or that of a willing adult volunteer. In this section, you will:
Create a 750- to 1000-word case study of a real (either yourself or a willing adult volunteer) or fictitious person who has developed the competencies of their academic program at Ashford University.   Evaluate your real or fictitious person’s learning within the program as it contributes to the overall attainment of the institutional outcomes. Include at least one personal life example and one career example of applying the competencies to resolve personal challenges and an ethical dilemma (e.g., a client or research subject reveals compromising information about a friend or family member who also happens to be someone you know in a personal/social context). Create or describe a scenario in which the person wrestles with an issue related to the assigned research topic in her or his personal and/or professional life. Be specific in your discussion of the scenario and provide details demonstrating professional problem solving on the part of the person in your case study. Include a section wherein your fictitious person or you articulate a personal point of view, evaluate evidence, determine options for responding and evaluate the pros and cons of the options prior to making a decision about a course of action within the scenario. Conclude with how the problem was resolved and what the person learned while at Ashford University that assisted in an effective resolution. Websites
Create an annotated list of 10 to 12 reputable, professional websites (e.g., government agencies, professional organizations, professional associations…) that are relevant to psychological research and practice. Commercial or non-academic websites may not be used for this assignment. Consider the merits of each website.  Based on your knowledge of scholarly applications of psychological research, evaluate the use of scholarly applied psychological research and analyze the interpretations that are presented on each site.  For information on how to evaluate web resources, visit the Ashford University Library website.   The list should be in alphabetical order with each website cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The annotations should be four to five sentences long and reflect the relevance and usefulness of each website in terms of your topics of psychological research and your professional needs.

In addition, your website must:
Include a footer with the date submitted (in Copyright section). Address the topics of each page with critical thought. Use the number of peer-reviewed sources listed with the instructions for each web page. Document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.   Include a separate reference section at the bottom of each web page, for the sources used on that page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Edit question’s body 2psy496assignment1.docx Resume1psy496.docx discussion1week3.pptx Psychology Work

Lctubman Field: Psychology Posted: 5 Days Ago Due: 18/09/2017 Budget:  $100

Report Issue

DUE 9-18-17 

Final Project

For your Final Project, you will create a website that showcases the skills you have gained throughout your psychology program.  Your website will consist of the following elements: a homepage, a literature review, expert opinions, résumés, a case study, and a list of pertinent websites.  Each of these sections will be its own tab on the website.  When complete, you may choose to use this website after graduation as a means to showcase your abilities to potential employers and/or graduate schools.    

To begin, review the elements required for each section of your website below.  

Next, visit the Wix.com (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website to familiarize yourself with this technology.  Scroll down on the webpage and click the pink arrow to view a quick tour video of the website platform.  Note: This site is best viewed using either the Chrome or Firefox web browsers.  Refer to the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for step-by-step instructions on setting up your website.   

Wix_com_Quick_Start_Guide.pdf 

If you experience any technical difficulties, please visit the Wix Support Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The technical support offered through your Student Portal will not be able to assist you with the Wix website.  When you are ready to create your website, click the Start Now button to register and begin building.  If you are unable to utilize the Wix platform to complete this assignment and you have already watched the tutorial, read through the Wix.com Quick-Start Guide, and contacted the Wix Support Center, please contact your instructor.    

It is highly recommended that you complete any and all written work in a separate document first and then cut and paste the required content into your webpage. This will allow you to edit and save your work separate from the website, should anything occur which causes the website to fail.  Additionally, you will be able to work on your content without having to remain connected to the internet and it may be easier to develop and edit your content in Word, prior to publishing it on your website.   

Sections of the Final Project will be completed within the course weeks and will be revised for inclusion in this project. Carefully review all suggestions and comments from the instructor and/or your classmates before including that work within the content of your website.

Clearly label the website as your course project. Although it will not be searchable to the general public, it will be publicly available and anyone who is given your specific site link will be able to view it.

Copy and paste the URL to your website into a Word document for submission. Once you have received your final grade for this course, you have the option of deleting this website through your account with Wix.com.

Creating the Website

The website:
Must be named with the following convention: your last name + PSY496 Final Project. Example: Smith PSY496 Final Project.  Must include six tabs with the following headings and information. Watch the screencast video below to assist you with setting up your required tabs. Home Page
Briefly introduce yourself and provide information regarding your professional background. Summarize your experiences within the Psychology program at Ashford University and what you hope to do upon graduation. You may include a professional photograph as well. Literature Review
Create a brief literature review that presents a fair and comprehensive analysis of relevant literature pertaining to the topic you chose in Week One. This page must include the following:
A brief introduction of the topic and its relevance (300 to 500 words). Three to five peer-reviewed articles based on applied psychological research. Each of the articles must directly relate to your chosen topic. A one- to two-paragraph (500 to750 words total) analysis and summary for each article. A reference list at the bottom of the page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Expert Opinions
Begin with the work you completed for the Mental Health Disciplines discussion in Week Three. In this section, you will demonstrate your awareness of the psychological career alternatives in a community setting and take on the role of two experts in different fields of psychology.  You will also evaluate contributions of psychological research in the applied context of these experts and discuss methodological issues unique to their areas of psychological research.    Take into consideration the comments your classmates and your instructor made on your discussion post. Include information from at least two peer-reviewed articles of your choosing that were published within the last five years to substantiate your experts’ claims.  The sources may not be any of those that are listed within this course.  For information on how to generate search terms for specific resources, visit the Ashford University Library website. Make any necessary changes to your presentation and create a new oral video presentation using a screencast program such as Jing and Screencast-O-Matic. You may also use YouTube or a voiceover PowerPoint saved as a video file with audio. Using the instructions on the Wix.com platform, embed the video of your oral presentation (screencast or video) in the Expert Opinions page of your website. As an alternative to embedding your video, you may copy and paste a working URL on the Expert Opinions page. Résumés
Begin with the work you completed for the Develop Professional Résumés assignment in Week Three. Based on the feedback from your instructor, make the recommended changes to the résumés you created for the two experts from the Presentation by Experts discussion in Week Three and the Expert Opinions web page you created.
Next, create your own professional résumé, that includes brief descriptions of the major duties associated with any relevant work experience you have.
Your résumé should appear first on the page followed by the résumés you created for the experts. To begin constructing your personal résumé, utilize the Resume Builder tool provided by Ashford University. This will allow you to create drafts of your résumé so that you may revise and refine your assignments before submitting them. Because your final project will be available for public viewing, do not include your actual personal contact information (i.e., address, phone number, email). To utilize this tool: Log into the Ashford University Student Portal Click on Job Search & Resume Builder link under Career Services Go to the My Documents Tab Select the Resume Builder Tab Create, save and edit these résumés to meet your assignment guidelines. Case Study
Begin with the work you completed for the Case Study: Evaluating Ashford University Institutional & Program Outcomes assignment in Week One. Review the feedback you received from your instructor and then create a case study that takes on the role you did not pursue. If you used your own story or that of a willing volunteer for the original assignment, then you will create a case study for a fictitious character. If you created a character for the case study in the original assignment, then you will use your own story or that of a willing adult volunteer. In this section, you will:
Create a 750- to 1000-word case study of a real (either yourself or a willing adult volunteer) or fictitious person who has developed the competencies of their academic program at Ashford University.   Evaluate your real or fictitious person’s learning within the program as it contributes to the overall attainment of the institutional outcomes. Include at least one personal life example and one career example of applying the competencies to resolve personal challenges and an ethical dilemma (e.g., a client or research subject reveals compromising information about a friend or family member who also happens to be someone you know in a personal/social context). Create or describe a scenario in which the person wrestles with an issue related to the assigned research topic in her or his personal and/or professional life. Be specific in your discussion of the scenario and provide details demonstrating professional problem solving on the part of the person in your case study. Include a section wherein your fictitious person or you articulate a personal point of view, evaluate evidence, determine options for responding and evaluate the pros and cons of the options prior to making a decision about a course of action within the scenario. Conclude with how the problem was resolved and what the person learned while at Ashford University that assisted in an effective resolution. Websites
Create an annotated list of 10 to 12 reputable, professional websites (e.g., government agencies, professional organizations, professional associations…) that are relevant to psychological research and practice. Commercial or non-academic websites may not be used for this assignment. Consider the merits of each website.  Based on your knowledge of scholarly applications of psychological research, evaluate the use of scholarly applied psychological research and analyze the interpretations that are presented on each site.  For information on how to evaluate web resources, visit the Ashford University Library website.   The list should be in alphabetical order with each website cited according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The annotations should be four to five sentences long and reflect the relevance and usefulness of each website in terms of your topics of psychological research and your professional needs.

In addition, your website must:
Include a footer with the date submitted (in Copyr

Total Quality Management in Higher Education Case Study: Quality in Practice at University College of Borås

Total Quality Management in Higher Education

TQM at University College of Boras

 

QASIM ALVI

8/22/2014

 

 

The study highlights the general principle of the TQM through a case study in the university of Boras

 

 

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction:4

1.1Background:4

1.2 Quality System at University College of Boras:5

1.3 Research Area:6

1.4 Purpose of the Thesis:7

1.5 Thesis Structure:7

Chapter 2: Research Methodology:9

2.1 Induction and Deduction:9

2.2 Quality Research:9

2.3 Reliability and Validity:10

2.4 Data Collection:11

2.5 Aims and Objectives:12

2.6 Research Question:12

2.7 Survey and Questionnaire:13

Chapter 3: Summary Literature Review:15

3.1 Quality of Higher Education:16

Chapter 4: Limitation:19

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the thesis is to shed light on the principles of TQM and identify the approach that can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the academic institution. The study is based upon a case study of a university called “University College of Boras” that will explore the quality management of the administrative structure, departments and academic area. The study incorporates evaluation and analysis of the present quality work of the university. Moreover, the TQM principles are compared with the issues of the university in order to shed light on the weakness and strength of the institution. 

This dissertation will include a complete thorough analysis of the TQM of the university and identify the problem statements along with recommendation to improve the quality. The data will be collected through primary data collection method by conducting surveys and interviews whereas secondary data is collected by studying the preexisting articles, books and literature. 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction:

The Higher Education institutions are rapidly increasing methods and technologies in order to improve the quality of the academic institutions. The administrators of UCB has launched quality administration sector in order to improve the standard of their education system according to the principles of the Total Quality Management (Oakland, 2014). 

Higher Training Institutions (HEIs) has implemented the TQM principles, and it has reinforced the dimension of quality of institutions and subsequent education. The university has decided to conduct an evaluation of the quality work that we cover in the thesis therefore; we benchmark the assessment with the TQM philosophy. 

This chapter therefore, defines the background of the thesis, research area, purpose of thesis and structure of the thesis. Background:

 

At the start of the twentieth century a rapid development in higher vocational education was started. According to the statistics a rapid increment in the assort of students and scholars has occurred by 1940. From the year 1975 until 2000, university colleges were established as to increase the accessibility of the higher education in Sweden.

The higher education in Sweden emphasize on three basic attributes that incorporates education, research and cooperation with the society and rest of the culture. Moreover, the government of Sweden is also making efforts in the field of higher education and funding the higher education to almost 46%. (Hoang, 2010)

The University Colleges at Sweden are those institutes that do not offer the Research Education but they do offer degrees related to Masters and basic bachelors. 

The University College of Boras was found in the year 1977. According to the current data, UCB has more than 12500 students along with more than 800 employees. The campus of UCB is located at the heart of the Boras. The university consists of six different schools that offer several different multi discipline programs. The departments of University College of Boras are narrated as follows:Library and Information ScienceBusiness and InformaticsFashion and TextilesBehavioral Sciences and Teacher EducationEngineeringHealth Care and Caring Science

In addition to these departments, the university also has two other departments that are called a library and learning resources and central administration center. Figure 1 in the appendix shows the map of the University College of Boras. According to the University College of Boras their vision is to become an institute of a postgraduate education and declare itself as a Professional University instead of being a University College. 

1.2 Quality System at University College of Boras:

The University College of Boras is making efforts since the year 1990 by establishing the first version of the quality management in the year 1992. The quality program initiated by the University College of Boras along with the definition of its culture is studies in the dissertation. Moreover, the UCB board including the chairperson, staff and prefects are concerned about improving their quality work. The program of UCB that was launched in the year 1995 is based upon long-term goals that are for the development of the quality within different aspect of operations with the three-year perspective.

According to the statistics, the evaluation of the improvement was conducted in the year 1998. The board decided that the evaluation would help them to develop a new strategy and quality program for the year 2000 onwards.  The analysis of the quality starts by evaluating the performance of the teachers that includes a simple framework that assist in carrying out the analysis of all the attributes of the activities. 

Moreover, the UCB has a tool named Policy for kvalitetsarbete vid Högskolan I Borås/Policy that is considered as a guidance tool. In order to check and maintain the quality the UCB has a quality assurance system that includes the quality council, committees, chairperson and principal.

1.3 Research Area:

Education is one of the most important service industries in the commercial public sector. According to Babbar (1995) the quality of education is forms the permanent security and wealth of the societies and their subsequent people. In the last two decades, the quality of education and high standard has evolved to be a major concern for the education institutions and governments. Therefore, the explicit quality evaluation demand is increasing in the era today that has also increased the assurance process. Moreover, the funds that are launched by the government to the education sector also demand a quality assessment in order to ensure that education in the schools and universities are maintaining their standards. 

According to Nina and Maureen (2006), the quality of education will also help the university in increasing their number of students and provides an extra edge in the competitive market. Therefore, the HEIs are continuously seeking for the options that can improve the effectiveness of their high quality in education 

The quality of the education has therefore, evolved a new concept termed as “Total Quality Management” (TQM). The phenomenon applied to several to the business and industry is now implemented in the higher education institution in order to provide high quality standards. 

A brief investigation of TQM standards demonstrates the extent to which it could be actualized in HEIs, also numerous framework of TQM are appropriate with the work of HEIs as an aspect of the quality audit and assessment. TQM keeps on being considered by many people as inadmissible intend to the HEIs, still numerous colleges and universities apply TQM as an instrument to enhance the nature of higher education. For example, U.S., U.K., Australia, and New Zealand organizations have received TQM in their advanced education, and there are some effective stories related to the situation. 

 

1.4 Purpose of the Thesis:

The main goal of this dissertation is about an evaluation of the quality work of the College of Borås. Actually, the Committee for Evaluation and Self-evaluation has pointed out this work to get a general picture of the current quality work of college. This board was designated by the College Board to do an inside evaluation of the quality work of the college every year. This dissertation thus focuses on shedding light on the present aspect of the quality of the University College of Boras.

The dissertation is based upon the assessment and evaluation that is conducted in the shape of a TQM approach and the quality arrangement of this college. This implies that there will be a few examinations about how this establishment works with quality, then discoveries will be in the hope to measure up with a particular methodology to discover the shortcomings and fortifies of the quality arrangement of this college. This assessment and evaluation as benchmarking with a TQM methodology will prompt highlighting the general standards of TQM. It will additionally propel the inquiry of how this methodology might be use to enhance the nature of a scholarly organization, which is the largely goal of this work. 

Overall, the aim is to provide a complete documentation in the connection of quality and a specific TQM approach, which will encourage this college school to fulfill its requirements of stakeholders, including administration board, students, staff, authorities, distinctive national unions to accomplish the college’s objectives and vision

1.5 Thesis Structure:

The study will incorporate the following structure: 

Section 1: Introduction: This section will begin with a few foundations about the work. It will proceed by presenting exploration region, and consistently will clarify the motivation behind the proposal. At last, it will portray delimitations and postulation structure. 

Section 2: Theoretical Frame of References: In this section, the point is about some Primary definitions. At that point, it will proceed by presenting a TQM methodology and portrayal of its comprising parts, and inevitably, a model will be created for the usage of this specific methodology. 

Part 3: Methods: The purpose of this section is about portrayal of the exploration technique. At that point, there will be some discourse about whether this examination is qualitative or quantitative. This part will proceed by a few dialogs about the dependability and legitimacy of this work. Finally, we will try to gather information and data. 

Section 4: University College of Borås: This section will begin by a prologue to the UCB, furthermore it will proceed by exploring the quality arrangement of this college school. The section will explore the history along with the present condition of the polices of the UCB for managing quality of education

Section 5: Analysis and examination: This section will start by investigating the statistics gathered by the examination based upon data collected from past section. The study will address the issues found from the examination. In the following parts of dissertation, suggestions and recommendations for development is depicted based upon the data collected. This part is focused around what it has been talked about in hypothetical case of reference and dissection of discoveries

Section 6: Conclusion: This part would be the end of the dissertation that will define the entire work. Thus, the entire work will be audited unequivocally and the last conclusion will be portrayed at the end.

Chapter 2: Research Methodology:

The research methodology is termed as hermeneutic methodology that includes study of preexisting literature and result of the research.  The research utilize of doing an examination, based upon induction, deduction and abduction, two most normal ones will be illuminated here and we will attempt to propel the one they have utilized.

2.1 Induction and Deduction:

 

Induction strategy alludes to arriving at from general to particular in examination work. Indeed, encounters assume imperative part in outline of inductive technique. Utilizing estimations and quantitative routines is normal is impelling. Induction begins with and hazy issue. At that point a exhaustive perspective of the vague matter will be made, Bengtsson (1995). Conclusion strategy calls attention to arriving at from general standards or speculations to finishes of each singular wonder, Patel and Davidsson (1994). Actually, finding implies that the scientist moves to from accessible writing and present issues to outcome come about particular occasion. For this situation, one theory examination carried out amid the test studies. The primary objective of finding is dissecting nature of the organization items and after that contrasting the dissection and the hypothesis. Given that, this examination is as careful investigation, and on the off chance that studies the most well-known philosophy is snatching, as indicated by Alvesson and Sköldberg (1994), this procedure will be utilized for this proposition work. Along these lines, the observational application of TQM will be produced and the hypothesis will be balanced 

2.2 Quality Research:

The research methodology, of this study incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods. Indeed, the qualitative and quantitative examination relies upon the quality and status of the issue. The base of qualitative examination is on study things and non-evaluated information like considerations and standards. For the most part, the center would be on diverse methods for data gathering to get a deeper understanding of the study things. Qualitative exploration accentuates on meetings, meeting, furthermore perception. Because of utilizing these methodologies, a profound seeing about the matter will be picked up, Marshall and Rossman (2006). Truth be told, qualitative exploration trust and apply four strategies to collect and accumulate the information and data. These four systems are support in area, immediate perception, profound meeting, furthermore examination of archives and material society. These strategies sort out the fundamental part of the examination. A few auxiliary and exceptional routines for information gathering improve them. Four picking the strategies for exploration and applying viably, we utilize Brantlinger’s helpful clarification of seven sections of discriminating explanations for qualitative request. The primary part alludes to analyst’s perspectives of the way of examination. The second part demonstrates scientist’s area relative to members. Third component is about the course of my research.

The most imperative divisions are fourth and fifth parts which identify with the goals of the examination and principle crowd of study. The sixth part brings up the analyst’s political area. Finally, seventh part alludes to the perspective of the scientist about herself and the members towards the activity of association. Suppositions made in these seven sorts diagram how the exceptional exploration routines are viewed as and executed amid a study. Quantitative examination concentrates on gathering an extensive number of information things that might be evaluated. The quantitative examination gives data that could be measurable and conclusions and results could be picked up on the premise of these. In the examination and study working, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative exploration strategies might be connected. The qualitative and quantitative routines finish one another in a compelling way. Hence, we need to utilize and dissect the results delivered by both qualitative and quantitative routines in the work of examination. In any case, this work was qualitative and the analysts depend on the current records from of boards of trustees and committees. 

2.3 Reliability and Validity:

The significance of validity is to outline questionnaires defining our inquiries and collect the subsequent answers of respondent in the own perspective. To accomplish high validity, inquiries questions must be arranged so that they are in concurrence with the overview’s point and what is planned to be measured will be measured and nothing more, Bell (1995). Dependability clarifies how estimations strategies oppose against the undesirable impacts. In most cases, dependability of meetings and surveys relies on upon individual status, solace elements, also detailing variables, Bell (1995). A viable approach to achieve high unwavering quality in meeting is picking proper inquiries, enough time designated to each one inquiry, and a nature’s domain. In addition, we must attempt to dodge of blunders in making poll, because these slips can diminish the unwavering quality of inquiries in meeting. Picking faultless and justifiable inquiries in data get-together stage makes a difference us in expanding unwavering quality and prompts picking up viable data and information identified with utilization, Ringer (1995). Notwithstanding, in this work the creators have attempted to build the legitimacy and dependability of the work taking into account the accompanying certainties. The inquiries for meetings have planned ahead of time and the creators’ director has checked them. Moreover, these inquiries were given to the interviewees few days before the gathering to give enough time to them, and they chose interviewees were designated in the top position, they were the seats of distinctive advisory groups. In the gathering session, enough time has been allotted for each one inquiry. At last, after talks with the scientists have gathered the answers and gave answers were offered once again to the respondents for last approbation of what it has been talked about. 

2.4 Data Collection:

In the venture of information and data accumulation, there are two gatherings of information known as primary and secondary data collection method. Primary information is identified with information that is picked up by distinctive methods, for example, meetings and surveys. The secondary data collections are writing studies, daily paper, magazines, related articles, and web. 

Primary data might be gathered in three ways: perceptions, presumption analysis, and meetings, Dahström (1996). Utilizing meetings and perception is more regular than presumption examination. Contingent upon the information required, the inquiries in the meetings are distinctive. The inquiries in the questionnaire must be constrained into few attributes for replying. Qualitative overviews are suitable with open inquiries and result questions. For this situation, planning an inquiry for composing the own elucidation about each one inquiry can prompt better results

Qualitative research utilizes and trusts on profound question more than alternate techniques for information accumulation.” Kahlan and Cannell clarify questioning as “a discussion with a reason”. A qualitative meeting is described on its width rather than its profundity. In actuality, Talking with varies as far as a previous development and in the extension the interviewee has in offering an explanation to inquiries. Meetings are isolated into three gatherings as per “Patton”. These gatherings are the casual conversational meeting, the general meeting aide methodology, and the institutionalized open-finished meeting. Qualitative in profundity meeting are like discussion as opposed to formal systems with perceived answers. For this situation, the questioner presents a few truths and basic issues to uncover the member’s perspectives, yet then again regards how the member structures the answers. Also, systematization in making inquiries must be considered when numerous interviewees are took an interest in the meeting or the clarification and examination of the results is basic for questioner, Marshall and Rossman (2006).

2.5 Aims and Objectives:

The aim of the research is to:

1. Prove that the Total Quality Management concepts increase the quality of HE institutions

2. Distinguish the difficulties in TQM implementation in HE Institutions.

3. Identify the TQM of the University College of Boras

4. Compare the quality of the education at UCB with eth TQM principles

2.6 Research Question:

The study utilizes descriptive methodology, which focuses around analysis of the writing, pre-existing research and perceptions related to TQM for advanced education organizations and supporting the implementation of the TQM ideas in advanced education foundations in UCB. Thus, the study is based upon answering the following questions:What is TQM Model of Higher Education?What is the TQM of the University College of Boras?What are the issues that resist TQM in UCB?

 

2.7 Survey and Questionnaire:

Questionnaire For the Quality CouncilWhat are the vision and goals of the UBC?What approach does UBC adopt in order to achieve these golas?How far is the UBC from achieving these goals?What are the main concerns of the quality council?What are the main responsibilities of the quality council of UBC?What is meant by quality effort and how do you achieve it?How can UBC improve their student’s services?Does UBC cooperate with the trade or industry zone?How can UBC increase the rate of effectiveness and use the resources efficiently?What is the quality model for Higher education?For whom is UBC working?What measures are used to analyze quality improvement of UBC?

 

Questionnaire For Committee For Sustainable DevelopmentHow does UCB carry out its actions to reach sustainable growth?How far is this UBC from sustainable growth objectives? (What are the barriers?)How sustainable growth can help this university college to progress the quality of its higher education?What is the definition of quality in higher education?For whom is this university college working?

 

 

Questionnaire for Committee For Evaluation and Self-AssessmentWhat are the strategic goals of this university college?What are the approaches of the university college to reach these goals?How far is this university college from those goals? (What are the main barriers?)What are the main tasks of the Self-assessment and Evaluation Committee, and how does it work?Why does the university college assess the quality work?Who are assessing the quality work, except the self-assessment and evaluation committee?How often do they try to do the assessment of the quality work in this university college?Is this institution co-operating with quality assurances and accreditation agencies? If possible, please name and explain to what extent they co-operate?How do they measure the quality improvement in this university college? (By satisfied

Stakeholders, by benchmarking, by the number of educated students, by the number of applicants, by the number of publications, is it qualitative or quantitative, etc.)What is the definition of quality in higher education?What kind of assessment would you prefer to use in the quality work, why? (Self-assessment,external audit, benchmarking, etc)

 

 

Chapter 3: Summary Literature Review:

In light of these truths, Hellsten and Klefsjö (2000, pp. 238-44) have characterized TQM as something significantly more than center qualities, and to them it is an administration framework. A framework in the feeling of Deming, “A system of reliant parts that cooperate to attempt to fulfill the point of the framework”, Deming (1994, p.50), which one of the parts is center qualities. Two different parts are strategies and devices that help the center qualities. Actually, definition gave by Hellsten and Klefsjö stresses that the idea of TQM, as a entire thought, is a blend of qualities, strategies and devices, where they have jointed to achieve higher client fulfillment with less assets utilization, see figure 2. This entire idea could be taken to mean as an administration framework. 

In executing the TQM in an association or assembling organization, administration is the fundamental issue. The top administration must consider the objectives of the organization, those moves that must make set up, quality monetarily, and assets, (for example, administration assets) that are important for attaining the vision of the organization, in all parts of value. Henceforth, for enhancing the quality of an association, duty and information of the authority is the first step. After that, a society must be existed focused around some center qualities, which are Customer focusDecisions based on factsProcess focusContinuous improvementCommitment of everybody 

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a strategy that relentlessly distinguishes client needs also desires on administration particulars and outlines parameter and exchanges these needs to administration qualities and extra to the administration process. Additionally, it is an effective philosophy for correspondence and interest. For this situation, it needs gather parts to work together with a specific end goal to accomplish a crucial premise for nonstop and coordinated administration change. To attain and execute QFD, we need to take after four steps. Initially is doing a business sector examination in request to comprehend client necessities and desires. Second is distinguishing and at the same time evaluating the same time the contenders’ capability to satisfy clients’ expectations. Third perceives key achievement elements of association’s item available. Finally, the fourth step is exchanging these key variables into item and procedure qualities in association with configuration, change, and production. The goal of QFD is to decipher the desires of clients into item and procedure details by consistently allowing the needs be repeated at each level of item change process. 

As per Bunney and Dale (1997, pp. 183–189) for utilizing and applying Quality Management Instruments (quality control devices) and systems, the a few notes must be thought seriously about by every association to attain great comes about, these some of notes are: 

• Identifying phases of change, presenting suitable Qmts for suitable capacity, considering accessible asset are essential elements in AQMT. Distinguishment of the synthesis of proper apparatuses for particular application, alongside satisfactory preparing is crucial for execution of Qmts. 

• To overcome troubles with respect to the status change process, Qmts ought to be used to unravel generally characterized issues. 

• Understanding of devices inside appropriate gathering of individuals identifying with their positions will cause QMT to turn into a piece of day-by-day exercises inside the association. 

• Providing satisfactory preparing to the right individuals at the perfect time, alongside decently characterized Qmts is key for fruitful change 

3.1 Quality of Higher Education:

 

Principle concern in this work is about meaning of nature of advanced education that has turned out to be much more troublesome as opposed to assembling items and administrations. There is no question about the point that quality assumes a critical part in today has advanced education, Owlia and Aspinwall (1997, pp. 527-543). Feigenbaum (1994, pp. 83-4) believes competition between nations the nature of instruction is the primary and essential variable, and this is on the grounds that nature of items and administrations is characterized by the activity, choice making, and considerations of supervisors, architects, laborers, and educators in the quality work. Like other organizations, in today’s business sector, instruction and specifically advanced education has entered to business rivalry, which is because of practical strengths, Seymour (1992). Freeman accepts that this rival is firstly due to the change of the worldwide training business, and is because of the lessening of the legislative supports that empower associations to search for some other fiscal sources, Freeman (1993). Thusly, recognizing what the quality means in advanced education as the first period of value work appears to be fundamental. Notwithstanding, still there is nobody interesting definition about the nature of advanced education, there are many of these clarifications that in some way or another have industry viewpoint that in “imperceptible”

Besides, Cheng and Tam (1997) recommend, “Instruction quality is a somewhat obscure and disputable idea” and Pounder (1999) contends that quality is a “famously questionable term”. Overall, some different masters in the connection of value in advanced education want to redress those definitions originating from industry and utilize the overhauled variant of definition of value in advanced education. Case in point Campell and Rozsnayi (2002, pp. 19–20), have characterized the idea of nature of advanced education in a few routes identified with industry:  Quality as perfection: this definition is thought to be the customary scholastic perspective that holds as its objective to be the best. 

Quality as zero blunders: this is characterized most effectively in mass industry in which item particulars could be made in point of interest, and institutionalized estimations of uniform items can demonstrate adjustment to them. As the results of advanced education, the graduates, are not anticipated that will be indistinguishable, this perspective is not generally thought to be material in advanced education. Quality as wellness for purposes: this methodology obliges that the item or administration has congruity with client needs, prerequisites, or cravings. 

Quality as change: this idea centers solidly on the learners: the better the advanced education foundation, the more it attains the objective of enabling understudies with particular abilities, learning and state of mind that empower them to live and work in the information society. Quality as limit: characterizing an edge for quality intends to set certain standards and criteria. Any organization that achieves these standards and criteria is esteemed to be of value. 

Quality as worth for cash: The thought of responsibility is fundamental to this meaning of quality with responsibility being focused around the requirement for restriction out in the open consumption

Quality as upgrade or change: This idea stresses the quest for nonstop change and is predicated on the idea that accomplishing quality is focal to the scholarly ethos and that it is scholastics themselves who know best what quality is some time or another. Notwithstanding of these distinctive definitions on nature of training, nature of yield and notoriety in scholarly research are well on the way to be esteemed in Heis. Nonetheless, quality frameworks adjusted from business and industry operations need to be reoriented, and re installed for advanced education conditions to turn the center from the administration based to the training based practices, as indicated by Mizikaci (2006). 

Tribus (1994) accepts that the destinations of each school, or college, ought to be to give every understudy, chances to enhance in learning, know how, astuteness, and character. The principal idea empowers understudies to comprehend, and the second one encourages them to do, in like manner the third one empowers understudies to set necessities, lastly the character gives the probability for them to coordinate, to drive forward and to wind up regarded and trusted parts of society.

 

Chapter 4: Limitation:

The fundamental confinement for this venture was about discovering some applicable reports with respect to the quality work of the college school of Borås, since established reports were distributed in Swedish. Truth be told, discovering significant English reports was the primary sympathy toward analysts. On the other hand, an interpreter was delegated to help the scientists in this setting, because of some confinements for her; she could not proceed until the end of the work. Hence, the creators have to be confined to the accessible information and talks with keeping in mind the end goal to demonstrate the officially existing quality framework in this college. In addition, considering time/credit casing of this proposition work, there was an understanding for the number of meetings for this work 

 

References:

 

Oakland, J. S. (2014). Total Quality Management and Operational Excellence: Text with Cases. Routledge. 

Hoang, D. T., Igel, B., & Laosirihongthong, T. (2010). Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organisational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member. Total quality management, 21(9), 931-951. 

Wang, C. H., Chen, K. Y., & Chen, S. C. (2012). Total quality management, market orientation and hotel performance: the moderating effects of external environmental factors.&nbs

M3 Assignment 2 Submission Instructions Assignment 2: LASA 1: Gender Perception in Nonverbal Communication

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20px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu,.d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-menu-0, .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 0px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 0px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content,.d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-content-1, .d2l-dropdown-content-1[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  d2l-menu-item-link {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-link[disabled],d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-link[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-link {   display:block;padding:0 }  d2l-menu-item-link>a.d2l-menu-item-link {   color:inherit;display:block;line-height:1rem;outline:0;overflow-x:hidden;padding:.75rem 1rem;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0 }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   background-color:transparent;border:none;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:0;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:disabled {   opacity:.5 }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover {   outline-style:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   transition:color .3s ease; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   color:#005694; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-icon-button-0, .d2l-icon-button-0[dir=rtl] {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0>span.d2l-icon-button {   position:absolute!important;overflow:hidden;width:1px;height:1px;white-space:nowrap;left:-10000px; }  d2l-image-action-group {   display:inline-block;line-height:0 }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:1.2rem }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-right:0 }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1.2rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-left:0 }  iron-a11y-announcer {   display:inline-block;position:fixed;clip:rect(0,0,0,0) }  d2l-course-image {   display:flex;align-items:center }  .d2l-course-image-hidden.d2l-course-image {   opacity:0 }  .shown.d2l-course-image {   animation-name:shown;animation-duration:.5s;animation-fill-mode:forwards }  @keyframes shown { 0% {   opacity:0 }  100% {   opacity:1 }  }  img.d2l-course-image {   min-height:100%;width:100% }  iron-scroll-threshold {   display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons {   border-top:1px solid transparent;display:block;margin:0 auto;width:100% }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons-floating.d2l-floating-buttons {   animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;-webkit-animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;background-color:#fff;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);border-top-color:#d3d9e3;bottom:0;box-shadow:0 -2px 4px rgba(86,90,92,.2);left:0;position:fixed;right:0;z-index:999 }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons>div.d2l-floating-buttons {   padding:.75rem 0 0 0;position:relative }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-right:0.75rem;margin-bottom:0.75rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button, .d2l-floating-buttons-0[dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-left:0.75rem;margin-right:0 }  @keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;-webkit-transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  d2l-dropdown-button {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-dropdown-button d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   height:.8rem;width:.8rem }  d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-right:.6rem }  d2l-dropdown-button[primary] d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   color:#fff }  [dir=rtl] d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button, d2l-dropdown-button[dir=rtl] button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-left:.6rem;margin-right:0 }  d2l-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  d2l-action-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-sticky-element {   position:-webkit-sticky;position:sticky;top:0;z-index:1 }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 {   display:block;width:100%;position:relative; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   outline:0;overflow-x:auto;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box;; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   position:absolute;top:10px;border-radius:50%;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;background-color:#f9fafb;height:18px;width:18px;padding:10px;box-sizing:content-box; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none;margin-bottom:60px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:-15px;left:auto; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:auto;left:-15px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:right }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:left }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:inline; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,.d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none; }  d2l-table-wrapper {   background-color:transparent;display:block;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 {   ; }  .d2l-table-0 {   background-color:transparent;border-collapse:separate!important;border-spacing:0;display:table;font-size:.8rem;font-weight:400;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 >thead {   display:table-header-group; }  .d2l-table-0 >tfoot {   display:table-footer-group;background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody {   background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr {   display:table-row; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td,.d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3;display:table-cell;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle;font-weight:inherit;padding:1rem; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th {   text-align:right }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr[header]>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr>th {   color:#565a5c;font-family:inherit;font-size:.7rem;line-height:1rem;background-color:#f9fafb;margin:1rem 0; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:first-child {   border-left:0 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:last-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:last-child {   border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child {   border-top-left-radius:0;border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0 }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:fi

M3 Assignment 2 Submission Instructions Assignment 2: LASA 1: Gender Perception in Nonverbal Communication

Version:1.0 StartHTML:000000275 EndHTML:000142252 StartFragment:000109001 EndFragment:000142208 StartSelection:000109113 EndSelection:000142048 SourceURL:https://myclasses.argosy.edu/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=57742&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=14913   .d2l-icon-0 {   -ms-flex-align:center;-webkit-align-items:center;align-items:center;color:#565a5c;display:-ms-inline-flexbox;display:-webkit-inline-flex;display:inline-flex;fill:currentcolor;height:18px;-ms-flex-pack:center;-webkit-justify-content:center;justify-content:center;stroke:none;vertical-align:middle;width:18px }  .d2l-icon-0[icon*=”d2l-tier2:”] {   height:24px;width:24px }  .d2l-icon-0[icon*=”d2l-tier3:”] {   height:30px;width:30px }  d2l-dropdown {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-menu-item {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item[disabled],d2l-menu-item[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item {   display:flex;padding:.75rem 1rem }  d2l-menu-item>span.d2l-menu-item {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  d2l-menu-item>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item {   flex:none;margin-top:.1rem }  d2l-menu-item-return {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-return[disabled],d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-return[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-return {   display:flex;padding:.75rem 1rem }  d2l-menu-item-return>span.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  d2l-menu-item-return>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:none;margin-right:1rem;margin-top:.1rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-menu-item-return>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return, d2l-menu-item-return[dir=rtl]>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1rem }  d2l-menu-item-separator {   display:block }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;position:relative;left:0;overflow:hidden;width:100%;-webkit-transition:height .3s linear;transition:height .3s linear }  [no-animate-height] .d2l-menu-0, .d2l-menu-0[no-animate-height] {   transition:none }  .d2l-menu-0[child-view] {   display:none;position:absolute;top:0;left:100% }  .d2l-menu-0[shown] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-show.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards .3s linear;animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 .3s forwards linear }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-hide.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards .3s linear;animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 .3s forwards linear }  @keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,0) }  100% {   transform:translate(-100%,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0) }  }  @keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(-100%,0) }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0) }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block;width:100% }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu {   border:1px solid transparent;border-top-color:#e6eaf0;color:#565a5c }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu:hover {   background-color:#e8f2f9;border-top:1px solid #29a6ff;border-bottom:1px solid #29a6ff;color:#006fbf }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemradio]:hover {   border-bottom-color:#29a6ff }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:first-child {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator {   border:0 }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio] {   border-top:1px solid #b9c2d0 }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio] {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 20px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 20px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu,.d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-menu-0, .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 0px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 0px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content,.d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-content-1, .d2l-dropdown-content-1[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  d2l-menu-item-link {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-link[disabled],d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-link[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-link {   display:block;padding:0 }  d2l-menu-item-link>a.d2l-menu-item-link {   color:inherit;display:block;line-height:1rem;outline:0;overflow-x:hidden;padding:.75rem 1rem;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0 }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   background-color:transparent;border:none;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:0;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:disabled {   opacity:.5 }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover {   outline-style:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   transition:color .3s ease; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   color:#005694; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-icon-button-0, .d2l-icon-button-0[dir=rtl] {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0>span.d2l-icon-button {   position:absolute!important;overflow:hidden;width:1px;height:1px;white-space:nowrap;left:-10000px; }  d2l-image-action-group {   display:inline-block;line-height:0 }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:1.2rem }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-right:0 }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1.2rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-left:0 }  iron-a11y-announcer {   display:inline-block;position:fixed;clip:rect(0,0,0,0) }  d2l-course-image {   display:flex;align-items:center }  .d2l-course-image-hidden.d2l-course-image {   opacity:0 }  .shown.d2l-course-image {   animation-name:shown;animation-duration:.5s;animation-fill-mode:forwards }  @keyframes shown { 0% {   opacity:0 }  100% {   opacity:1 }  }  img.d2l-course-image {   min-height:100%;width:100% }  iron-scroll-threshold {   display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons {   border-top:1px solid transparent;display:block;margin:0 auto;width:100% }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons-floating.d2l-floating-buttons {   animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;-webkit-animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;background-color:#fff;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);border-top-color:#d3d9e3;bottom:0;box-shadow:0 -2px 4px rgba(86,90,92,.2);left:0;position:fixed;right:0;z-index:999 }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons>div.d2l-floating-buttons {   padding:.75rem 0 0 0;position:relative }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-right:0.75rem;margin-bottom:0.75rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button, .d2l-floating-buttons-0[dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-left:0.75rem;margin-right:0 }  @keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;-webkit-transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  d2l-dropdown-button {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-dropdown-button d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   height:.8rem;width:.8rem }  d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-right:.6rem }  d2l-dropdown-button[primary] d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   color:#fff }  [dir=rtl] d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button, d2l-dropdown-button[dir=rtl] button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-left:.6rem;margin-right:0 }  d2l-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  d2l-action-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-sticky-element {   position:-webkit-sticky;position:sticky;top:0;z-index:1 }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 {   display:block;width:100%;position:relative; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   outline:0;overflow-x:auto;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box;; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   position:absolute;top:10px;border-radius:50%;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;background-color:#f9fafb;height:18px;width:18px;padding:10px;box-sizing:content-box; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none;margin-bottom:60px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:-15px;left:auto; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:auto;left:-15px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:right }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:left }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:inline; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,.d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none; }  d2l-table-wrapper {   background-color:transparent;display:block;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 {   ; }  .d2l-table-0 {   background-color:transparent;border-collapse:separate!important;border-spacing:0;display:table;font-size:.8rem;font-weight:400;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 >thead {   display:table-header-group; }  .d2l-table-0 >tfoot {   display:table-footer-group;background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody {   background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr {   display:table-row; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td,.d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3;display:table-cell;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle;font-weight:inherit;padding:1rem; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th {   text-align:right }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr[header]>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr>th {   color:#565a5c;font-family:inherit;font-size:.7rem;line-height:1rem;background-color:#f9fafb;margin:1rem 0; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:first-child {   border-left:0 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:last-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:last-child {   border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child {   border-top-left-radius:0;border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0 }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:fi

M3 Assignment 2 Submission Instructions Assignment 2: LASA 1: Gender Perception in Nonverbal Communication

Version:1.0 StartHTML:000000275 EndHTML:000142252 StartFragment:000109001 EndFragment:000142208 StartSelection:000109113 EndSelection:000142048 SourceURL:https://myclasses.argosy.edu/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=57742&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=14913   .d2l-icon-0 {   -ms-flex-align:center;-webkit-align-items:center;align-items:center;color:#565a5c;display:-ms-inline-flexbox;display:-webkit-inline-flex;display:inline-flex;fill:currentcolor;height:18px;-ms-flex-pack:center;-webkit-justify-content:center;justify-content:center;stroke:none;vertical-align:middle;width:18px }  .d2l-icon-0[icon*=”d2l-tier2:”] {   height:24px;width:24px }  .d2l-icon-0[icon*=”d2l-tier3:”] {   height:30px;width:30px }  d2l-dropdown {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-menu-item {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item[disabled],d2l-menu-item[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item {   display:flex;padding:.75rem 1rem }  d2l-menu-item>span.d2l-menu-item {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  d2l-menu-item>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item {   flex:none;margin-top:.1rem }  d2l-menu-item-return {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-return[disabled],d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-return[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-return {   display:flex;padding:.75rem 1rem }  d2l-menu-item-return>span.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  d2l-menu-item-return>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:none;margin-right:1rem;margin-top:.1rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-menu-item-return>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return, d2l-menu-item-return[dir=rtl]>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1rem }  d2l-menu-item-separator {   display:block }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;position:relative;left:0;overflow:hidden;width:100%;-webkit-transition:height .3s linear;transition:height .3s linear }  [no-animate-height] .d2l-menu-0, .d2l-menu-0[no-animate-height] {   transition:none }  .d2l-menu-0[child-view] {   display:none;position:absolute;top:0;left:100% }  .d2l-menu-0[shown] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-show.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards .3s linear;animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 .3s forwards linear }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-hide.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards .3s linear;animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 .3s forwards linear }  @keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,0) }  100% {   transform:translate(-100%,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0) }  }  @keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(-100%,0) }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0) }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block;width:100% }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu {   border:1px solid transparent;border-top-color:#e6eaf0;color:#565a5c }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu:hover {   background-color:#e8f2f9;border-top:1px solid #29a6ff;border-bottom:1px solid #29a6ff;color:#006fbf }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemradio]:hover {   border-bottom-color:#29a6ff }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:first-child {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator {   border:0 }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio] {   border-top:1px solid #b9c2d0 }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio] {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 20px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 20px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu,.d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-menu-0, .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 0px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 0px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content,.d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-content-1, .d2l-dropdown-content-1[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  d2l-menu-item-link {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-link[disabled],d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-link[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-link {   display:block;padding:0 }  d2l-menu-item-link>a.d2l-menu-item-link {   color:inherit;display:block;line-height:1rem;outline:0;overflow-x:hidden;padding:.75rem 1rem;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0 }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   background-color:transparent;border:none;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:0;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:disabled {   opacity:.5 }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover {   outline-style:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   transition:color .3s ease; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   color:#005694; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-icon-button-0, .d2l-icon-button-0[dir=rtl] {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0>span.d2l-icon-button {   position:absolute!important;overflow:hidden;width:1px;height:1px;white-space:nowrap;left:-10000px; }  d2l-image-action-group {   display:inline-block;line-height:0 }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:1.2rem }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-right:0 }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1.2rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-left:0 }  iron-a11y-announcer {   display:inline-block;position:fixed;clip:rect(0,0,0,0) }  d2l-course-image {   display:flex;align-items:center }  .d2l-course-image-hidden.d2l-course-image {   opacity:0 }  .shown.d2l-course-image {   animation-name:shown;animation-duration:.5s;animation-fill-mode:forwards }  @keyframes shown { 0% {   opacity:0 }  100% {   opacity:1 }  }  img.d2l-course-image {   min-height:100%;width:100% }  iron-scroll-threshold {   display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons {   border-top:1px solid transparent;display:block;margin:0 auto;width:100% }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons-floating.d2l-floating-buttons {   animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;-webkit-animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;background-color:#fff;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);border-top-color:#d3d9e3;bottom:0;box-shadow:0 -2px 4px rgba(86,90,92,.2);left:0;position:fixed;right:0;z-index:999 }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons>div.d2l-floating-buttons {   padding:.75rem 0 0 0;position:relative }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-right:0.75rem;margin-bottom:0.75rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button, .d2l-floating-buttons-0[dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-left:0.75rem;margin-right:0 }  @keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;-webkit-transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  d2l-dropdown-button {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-dropdown-button d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   height:.8rem;width:.8rem }  d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-right:.6rem }  d2l-dropdown-button[primary] d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   color:#fff }  [dir=rtl] d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button, d2l-dropdown-button[dir=rtl] button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-left:.6rem;margin-right:0 }  d2l-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  d2l-action-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-sticky-element {   position:-webkit-sticky;position:sticky;top:0;z-index:1 }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 {   display:block;width:100%;position:relative; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   outline:0;overflow-x:auto;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box;; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   position:absolute;top:10px;border-radius:50%;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;background-color:#f9fafb;height:18px;width:18px;padding:10px;box-sizing:content-box; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none;margin-bottom:60px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:-15px;left:auto; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:auto;left:-15px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:right }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:left }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:inline; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,.d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none; }  d2l-table-wrapper {   background-color:transparent;display:block;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 {   ; }  .d2l-table-0 {   background-color:transparent;border-collapse:separate!important;border-spacing:0;display:table;font-size:.8rem;font-weight:400;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 >thead {   display:table-header-group; }  .d2l-table-0 >tfoot {   display:table-footer-group;background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody {   background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr {   display:table-row; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td,.d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3;display:table-cell;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle;font-weight:inherit;padding:1rem; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th {   text-align:right }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr[header]>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr>th {   color:#565a5c;font-family:inherit;font-size:.7rem;line-height:1rem;background-color:#f9fafb;margin:1rem 0; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:first-child {   border-left:0 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:last-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:last-child {   border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child {   border-top-left-radius:0;border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0 }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:fi

M3 Assignment 2 Submission Instructions Assignment 2: LASA 1: Gender Perception in Nonverbal Communication

Version:1.0 StartHTML:000000275 EndHTML:000142252 StartFragment:000109001 EndFragment:000142208 StartSelection:000109113 EndSelection:000142048 SourceURL:https://myclasses.argosy.edu/d2l/lms/dropbox/user/folder_submit_files.d2l?db=57742&grpid=0&isprv=0&bp=0&ou=14913   .d2l-icon-0 {   -ms-flex-align:center;-webkit-align-items:center;align-items:center;color:#565a5c;display:-ms-inline-flexbox;display:-webkit-inline-flex;display:inline-flex;fill:currentcolor;height:18px;-ms-flex-pack:center;-webkit-justify-content:center;justify-content:center;stroke:none;vertical-align:middle;width:18px }  .d2l-icon-0[icon*=”d2l-tier2:”] {   height:24px;width:24px }  .d2l-icon-0[icon*=”d2l-tier3:”] {   height:30px;width:30px }  d2l-dropdown {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-menu-item {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item[disabled],d2l-menu-item[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item {   display:flex;padding:.75rem 1rem }  d2l-menu-item>span.d2l-menu-item {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  d2l-menu-item>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item {   flex:none;margin-top:.1rem }  d2l-menu-item-return {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-return[disabled],d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-return[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-return {   display:flex;padding:.75rem 1rem }  d2l-menu-item-return>span.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  d2l-menu-item-return>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:none;margin-right:1rem;margin-top:.1rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-menu-item-return>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return, d2l-menu-item-return[dir=rtl]>d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1rem }  d2l-menu-item-separator {   display:block }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;position:relative;left:0;overflow:hidden;width:100%;-webkit-transition:height .3s linear;transition:height .3s linear }  [no-animate-height] .d2l-menu-0, .d2l-menu-0[no-animate-height] {   transition:none }  .d2l-menu-0[child-view] {   display:none;position:absolute;top:0;left:100% }  .d2l-menu-0[shown] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-show.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards .3s linear;animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 .3s forwards linear }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-hide.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards .3s linear;animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 .3s forwards linear }  @keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,0) }  100% {   transform:translate(-100%,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0) }  }  @keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(-100%,0) }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0) }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block;width:100% }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu {   border:1px solid transparent;border-top-color:#e6eaf0;color:#565a5c }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-first[role=menuitemradio]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=menuitem].d2l-menu:hover {   background-color:#e8f2f9;border-top:1px solid #29a6ff;border-bottom:1px solid #29a6ff;color:#006fbf }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitem]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitem]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemradio]:focus,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > .d2l-menu-item-last[role=menuitemradio]:hover {   border-bottom-color:#29a6ff }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-focus.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:first-child,.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu-item-return-hover.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:first-child {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator {   border:0 }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio] {   border-top:1px solid #b9c2d0 }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitem]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitem],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemcheckbox]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemcheckbox],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:focus+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio],.d2l-menu-0 .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=menuitemradio]:hover+d2l-menu-item-separator+[role=menuitemradio] {   border-top-color:transparent }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 20px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 20px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu>div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu,.d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-menu-0, .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 0px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 0px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content,.d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-content-1, .d2l-dropdown-content-1[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  d2l-menu-item-link {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-link[disabled],d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-link[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-link {   display:block;padding:0 }  d2l-menu-item-link>a.d2l-menu-item-link {   color:inherit;display:block;line-height:1rem;outline:0;overflow-x:hidden;padding:.75rem 1rem;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0 }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   background-color:transparent;border:none;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:0;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:disabled {   opacity:.5 }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover {   outline-style:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   transition:color .3s ease; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   color:#005694; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-icon-button-0, .d2l-icon-button-0[dir=rtl] {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0>span.d2l-icon-button {   position:absolute!important;overflow:hidden;width:1px;height:1px;white-space:nowrap;left:-10000px; }  d2l-image-action-group {   display:inline-block;line-height:0 }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:1.2rem }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-right:0 }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1.2rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-left:0 }  iron-a11y-announcer {   display:inline-block;position:fixed;clip:rect(0,0,0,0) }  d2l-course-image {   display:flex;align-items:center }  .d2l-course-image-hidden.d2l-course-image {   opacity:0 }  .shown.d2l-course-image {   animation-name:shown;animation-duration:.5s;animation-fill-mode:forwards }  @keyframes shown { 0% {   opacity:0 }  100% {   opacity:1 }  }  img.d2l-course-image {   min-height:100%;width:100% }  iron-scroll-threshold {   display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons {   border-top:1px solid transparent;display:block;margin:0 auto;width:100% }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons-floating.d2l-floating-buttons {   animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;-webkit-animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;background-color:#fff;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);border-top-color:#d3d9e3;bottom:0;box-shadow:0 -2px 4px rgba(86,90,92,.2);left:0;position:fixed;right:0;z-index:999 }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons>div.d2l-floating-buttons {   padding:.75rem 0 0 0;position:relative }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-right:0.75rem;margin-bottom:0.75rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button, .d2l-floating-buttons-0[dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-left:0.75rem;margin-right:0 }  @keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;-webkit-transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  d2l-dropdown-button {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-dropdown-button d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   height:.8rem;width:.8rem }  d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-right:.6rem }  d2l-dropdown-button[primary] d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   color:#fff }  [dir=rtl] d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button, d2l-dropdown-button[dir=rtl] button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-left:.6rem;margin-right:0 }  d2l-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  d2l-action-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list { 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Please read make sure that its APA formated , and cite inside the paper and reference page.

Assignment 2: Critical Evaluation of Court Case

It is important to understand the impact an expert testimony may have in the ultimate decision made by a court. In addition, it is helpful for practitioners of forensic psychology to be able to read and understand legal cases.

Tasks:

Click here to review the case Commonwealth of Virginia v. Allen (2005).

The case describes an appellate legal opinion or court decision involving expert witness testimony. When a case is appealed, it goes to an appellate or to a higher court. The appellate court then reviews the findings of the lower court, which in this case was the trial court. The appellate court offered the following two opinions: The first opinion (Commonwealth of Virginia v. Allen, 2005, pp. 1–24) is the majority opinion and is the one that counts. The second opinion (Commonwealth of Virginia v. Allen, 2005, pp. 24–31) is an opinion filed by a minority of judges who concurred (agreed) in part and dissented (disagreed) in part with the majority of the judges who ruled.

After reading the appellate legal opinion, write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following: Discuss whether either of the expert witnesses in this case acted unethically. Support your opinion with the relevant APA or specialty ethical guidelines. Indicate whether you agree with the majority decision or the minority concurring or dissenting opinion. Explain why.

The paper should be in APA style.

                                  Reading  material

    

Present: All the Justices COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA*  v.  Record No. 041454
RICHARD BRYAN ALLEN

          OPINION BY
JUSTICE LAWRENCE L. KOONTZ, JR.
        March 3, 2005

          FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA
               Alfred D. Swersky, Judge Designate
    Pursuant to Code § 37.1-70.6(A), the Commonwealth
petitioned the Circuit Court of the City of Alexandria to
civilly commit Richard Bryan Allen as a sexually violent
predator.  Following a hearing, the trial court sitting without
a jury determined that the Commonwealth had not met its burden
of proving by clear and convincing evidence that Allen is a
sexually violent predator.  Accordingly, the trial court
dismissed the Commonwealth’s petition.  The Commonwealth appeals
from this judgment, contending that the trial court erred in
admitting the testimony of Allen’s expert witness, a
psychologist who is not licensed to practice in Virginia.  The
Commonwealth further contends that the trial court erred in
finding that the Commonwealth had not met its burden of proof.

* In the trial court this case was styled “Jerry W. Kilgore, Attorney General of Virginia, ex rel. Commonwealth of Virginia v. Richard Bryan Allen.” We have amended the style of the case to reflect that the Commonwealth is the real party in interest, not a relator. See Townes v. Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___, ___ n.*, ___ S.E.2d ___, ___ n.* (2005) (today decided). 

                              BACKGROUND
    On January 19, 1983, Allen was convicted of the aggravated
sexual battery of an eight-year-old girl and a nine-year-old
girl.  Allen was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment for each
offense, with the sentences to run consecutively.
    Allen was released on parole on September 13, 2001.  Within
days of his release, however, Allen violated the conditions of
his parole and was returned to prison to serve the remainder of
his sentence.  On July 9, 2003, as required by Code § 37.1-
70.4(C), the Director of the Virginia Department of Corrections
notified the Commitment Review Committee (CRC) that Allen, who
was scheduled to be released from prison on September 14, 2003,
was subject to review for commitment because he was incarcerated
for a sexually violent offense and had been identified through a
preliminary screening test as being likely to re-offend.  As
required by Code § 37.1-70.5(B), the CRC referred Allen to Dr.
Ronald M. Boggio, Ph.D., a licensed clinical psychologist, for
evaluation.  Following receipt of Dr. Boggio’s evaluation
report, the CRC completed its assessment of Allen and, on August
7, 2003, forwarded to the Attorney General a recommendation that

   the Commonwealth seek to have Allen committed to a secure mental
health facility as a sexually violent predator.
    On August 14, 2003, the Commonwealth filed in the trial
court a petition for the civil commitment of Allen as a sexually
violent predator.  The trial court appointed counsel to
represent Allen, Code § 37.1-70.2, and, upon Allen’s motion,
ordered that funds be provided for a mental health expert to aid
in Allen’s defense, Code § 37.1-70.8.  Thereafter, the trial
court conducted a hearing as required by Code § 37.1-70.7.  The
trial court determined that there was probable cause to believe
that Allen is a sexually violent predator and ordered that Allen
be held in custody until a full hearing on the Commonwealth’s
petition could be conducted.  Although permitted by Code § 37.1-
70.9(B), neither Allen nor the Commonwealth requested a jury
trial on the commitment petition.

On December 12, 2003, the trial court conducted a trial on the Commonwealth’s petition.1 The Commonwealth presented evidence from Carmen Baylor, the custodian of records for the Greensville Correctional Center where Allen had been 

1 Code § 37.1-70.9 requires that the trial be conducted within 90 days of the determination of probable cause under Code § 37.1-70.7. In a continuance order entered October 30, 2003, Allen waived his objection to the ninety-day requirement. 

  

incarcerated. Baylor testified that while incarcerated Allen had committed 246 institutional infractions, including 15 for assault, four for indecent exposure, most recently in January 2003, and one instance of having consensual sex with another inmate.2      Barbara Ward, a senior probation/parole officer with the
Alexandria Adult Probation/Parole Office testified for the
Commonwealth that she was assigned to supervise Allen’s parole
following his initial release from prison on September 13, 2001.
Ward testified that she explained the rules of his parole to
Allen, and that he acknowledged his agreement to abide by them.
Nonetheless, Allen was late for his next meeting with Ward on
September 17, 2001 and failed to appear for the next subsequent
meeting.
    Ward testified she learned that Allen had been seen with a
young woman with Down’s Syndrome who was referring to Allen as

2 Allen has not assigned cross-error to the admission of evidence concerning non-sexual institutional infractions or the total number of infractions. Accordingly, we express no opinion on the admissibility of that evidence and will consider its weight in reviewing the trial court’s final judgment. But see McCloud v. Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___, ___, ___ S.E.2d ___, ___ (2005) (holding that trial court did not abuse its discretion in limiting introduction of such evidence in a jury trial on the Commonwealth’s petition to commit a prisoner as a sexually violent predator). 

   her “boyfriend.”  After Allen was arrested for violating the
terms of his parole by failing to meet with Ward, Ward went to
Allen’s room at the halfway house where he had been staying and
discovered that he had come into possession of a pornographic
magazine.
    Dr. Boggio, the psychologist who had performed the pre-
release evaluation of Allen for the CRC, testified as the
Commonwealth’s mental health expert.  Dr. Boggio principally
based his testimony upon the personal interview and tests he had
conducted during his evaluation of Allen.  Dr. Boggio testified
that Allen recounted a lengthy history of behavioral problems
from an early age, including setting fires, police
confrontations, and hitting other children and teachers.  Allen
was suspended from the New York City public schools as a result
of his violence, and lived as a runaway for a period of time.
    Dr. Boggio further testified that Allen bragged about the
extent of his violent behavior and expressed no remorse.   Allen
told Dr. Boggio that ever since Allen was a child he had been
known for having a “temper problem” and for being easily
angered.  When Allen was a teenager, he pulled a knife on a
female co-worker who referred to him with a racial slur.

       According to Dr. Boggio, Allen had a long history of
psychiatric care that began as a juvenile, including both in-
patient and out-patient treatment.  Allen was expelled for
fighting from the Commonwealth Center for Children &
Adolescents, then known as the DeJarnette Center, an acute care
mental health facility operated by the Virginia Department of
Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services.
Dr. Boggio also reviewed the pre-sentence investigation from
Allen’s convictions for aggravated sexual battery, which
revealed that his behavioral problems began at age four-and-a-
half, including disruptive and aggressive behavior, and later
included sexually inappropriate behavior.  Allen also reported
13 suicide attempts, beginning at age 13.  Dr. Boggio also
testified that the official records indicated Allen had
diagnoses of the depressive disorder spectrum as well as
antisocial personality disorder (APD) and polysubstance
dependence.  At least two of Allen’s institutional charges were
for possession or use of alcohol or illegal substances.
    Allen reported to Dr. Boggio that his first sexual
experience was intercourse with two girls when he was 16; one
girl was between 11 and 13 years of age and the other was 13 or
14.  Allen also told Dr. Boggio that he had an on-going sexual

   relationship with an eleven-year-old girl when he was seventeen.
Allen also claimed to have had a sexual relationship with the
mother of his two victims, and admitted that he had engaged in
homosexual activity while in prison.  Allen claimed never to
have been “in love” with anyone despite having had many
different relationships.
    Dr. Boggio testified that Allen claimed he thought his
nine-year-old victim was twelve, because she was “very
developed.”  He also claimed that the nine-year-old victim
initiated the sexual encounter.  He denied having assaulted the
eight-year-old victim.  Dr. Boggio found it important to note
that Allen had no immediate post-abuse feelings about himself,
the victims, or his behavior other than to deny involvement, and
that Allen expressed no remorse for the victims.  Similarly,
Allen denied responsibility for the infractions he committed
while incarcerated.
     Dr. Boggio diagnosed Allen with APD, dysthymic disorder,
and polysubstance dependence.  Dr. Boggio testified, reading
from the American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th ed. Revised text
2000), regarding APD:
    In order to meet this diagnosis, one has to have three
    of the following:  Failure to conform to social norms

       with respect to lawful behaviors, as indicated by
    repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
    . . . deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying,
    use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit
    or pleasure . . . impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
    . . . irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by
    repeated physical fights or assaults . . . reckless
    disregard for the safety of self or others . . .
    consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated
    failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor
    financial obligations . . . lack of remorse, as
    indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing
    having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.
    Additionally, the individual has to be at least 18
    years of age and has evidence of conduct disorder with
    onset before age 15.
Dr. Boggio testified that Allen met all of these criteria, with
the possible exception of failing to maintain a consistent work
history.
     Based on tests he administered to Allen, Dr. Boggio
testified that Allen has a composite IQ score of 103, plus or
minus 6 points, indicating that Allen is of average
intelligence.  Dr. Boggio also had Allen complete the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III).  Dr. Boggio
testified that Allen’s responses to the MCMI-III showed that he
has longstanding personality defects with no coping mechanisms,
meaning that Allen would repeat problem behaviors over and over
again, despite the consequences.
    Dr. Boggio also had Allen complete the Hare Psychopathy
Checklist Revised (Hare), an instrument designed to measure
                                  8

   psychopathic behaviors.  Allen’s score on this test placed him
in approximately the 90th percentile of incarcerated
individuals, suggesting a strong indication of a psychopathy to
take advantage of and manipulate people without regard to their
feelings or thoughts, and a tendency not to show remorse for
this behavior.  Dr. Boggio found the results of the Hare test
correlated with all the things that Allen had said during their
interview.

Dr. Boggio also administered the Static-99, a test used to predict sex offender recidivism, to Allen. According to Dr. Boggio, Allen’s scores on this test predicted that Allen would have a 33% likelihood of committing another sexual offense after 5 years following his release from prison, a 38% likelihood after 10 years, and a 40% likelihood after 15 years. Using a formula to extrapolate beyond 15 years, Dr. Boggio concluded that Allen would have a 62.7% likelihood of recidivism after 25 years. On the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism test, Dr. Boggio scored Allen with a 36.9% chance of reconviction in 10 years, and a 60.8% likelihood of reconviction in 25 years.3 Dr. Boggio also testified that these tests rely 

3 Dr. Boggio explained that there is a difference between recidivism, that is the committing of a crime without regard to 

   upon actuarial predictions and do not purport to satisfy
completely the issue the tester “is being asked to predict.”
    Dr. Boggio testified that in his opinion Allen is likely to
re-offend in the future because of an inability to control those
impulses that arise because of his personality disorder.  Dr.
Boggio noted that Allen’s lack of concern for others and his
tendency to act compulsively and without remorse make Allen much
more likely to be a repeat offender because he fails to see the
importance of respecting the rights of others.
    Dr. Boggio did not diagnose Allen as a pedophile, but
opined that Allen has a tendency to act to satisfy his own needs
and a “belief that people can be manipulated and that people can
be taken advantage of.”  Dr. Boggio testified that this
“predatory behavior” puts children as well as individuals with
impaired cognitive functioning at risk because they are easily
manipulated.
    In conclusion, Dr. Boggio testified that in his opinion
Allen needed in-patient treatment in a secure mental health
facility.  He opined that out-patient treatment would not be
appropriate because Allen has had no sex offender treatment
whether the subject is arrested and convicted, and reconviction,
that is actually being convicted for an offense.

10 

   while in prison, has no awareness that he needs help, was unable
to follow rules while on parole, and has a long history of not
being able to follow rules.
    Dr. Timothy P. Foley, Ph.D., testified as an expert witness
for Allen.  Dr. Foley is a psychologist licensed in Pennsylvania
and New Jersey.  Although not licensed to practice in Virginia,
Dr. Foley contacted the Virginia Board of Psychology and
obtained permission to perform an evaluation of Allen in
Virginia.
    To establish Dr. Foley’s qualifications as an expert, Allen
elicited testimony from Dr. Foley concerning his background and
experience in the field of treating sexually violent persons.
Dr. Foley testified that he had previously evaluated
approximately 250 sexually violent predators for the courts and
as a defense expert and had testified in over 200 such cases.
Dr. Foley further testified that currently he is employed by
federal district courts in both Pennsylvania and New Jersey to
assess and treat sexual offenders.  He previously was the
supervisor of the sexual offender program at a state prison in
Pennsylvania for two years.  Dr. Foley’s curriculum vitae, which
was admitted into evidence, showed that he is a member of the
Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers and has

11 

   published numerous articles concerning treatment of sexual
offenders.  Dr. Foley testified that he is familiar with the
statutory standards that apply to proceedings for the commitment
of sexually violent predators in Virginia.
    The Commonwealth objected to Dr. Foley being qualified as
an expert witness, asserting that “he’s not licensed in this
state or familiar with the state standards.”  The trial court
overruled the Commonwealth’s objection.
    Dr. Foley testified that he had reviewed Allen’s
institutional file from the Department of Corrections and other
reports.  Dr. Foley also administered various tests to Allen
including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and
the Abel Screen.  Dr. Foley testified that the Abel Screen is a
valid, reliable test to determine sexual preferences and
abnormal interests.  Dr. Foley concurred in Dr. Boggio’s
conclusion that Allen was not a pedophile, but opined that he
has a “socially deviant” interest in sexually mature underage
females.  Dr. Foley characterized this as “a common finding
among heterosexual males.”
    Dr. Foley administered a longer version of the Hare
Psychopathy Checklist to Allen.  Dr. Foley testified that Allen
received a prorated score of 26.7, which is not indicative of a

12 

   psychopathic classification.  Dr. Foley testified that the most
robust predictors of sexual offense recidivism are measured
sexual deviance and evidence of psychopathy, and that Allen
scored below the range of the psychopathy cutoff.
    Dr. Foley testified that he also administered the Static-99
to Allen and that the results were comparable to those achieved
when Dr. Boggio administered that test.  While Dr. Foley agreed
with Dr. Boggio’s general assessment of the results of the
Static-99 with regard to the likelihood that Allen would re-
offend, he characterized that result as meaning “there is less
than half a chance that Allen would be a recidivist [after] 15
years.”  Dr. Foley further qualified his assessment of the
Static-99 results by stating that the base population for the
test were adults who “had committed offenses as adults and had
been on the street for a period of time,” whereas Allen had been
a juvenile at the time of his original offenses and “has never
been on the street as an adult.”
    Dr. Foley agreed with Dr. Boggio’s assessment that Allen
suffers from APD.  Dr. Foley testified that while Allen’s
antisocial personality traits “[p]robably . . . will remain for
the rest of [his] life,” his “propensity to act them out will
decrease with age.”  Moreover, it was Dr. Foley’s opinion that

13 

   Allen “did not . . . suffer[] from an inability to control his
sexual impulses.”  Dr. Foley testified that in his opinion
Allen’s personality disorder does not predispose him to commit
sexually violent offenses.
    On rebuttal, Dr. Boggio testified that he disagreed with
Dr. Foley’s opinion regarding Allen’s propensity to re-offend.
While Dr. Boggio agreed that Allen’s propensity to act on his
sexual impulses would decrease, he opined that Allen would
remain at risk for re-offending throughout his life.
    Dr. Boggio disagreed with Dr. Foley’s use of the Abel
Screen as a predictor of sexual preferences and abnormal
interests.  He testified that published reliability data suggest
that the Abel Screen is not accurate.  Dr. Boggio further
testified that several state and federal courts have held that
the Abel Screen is not scientifically reliable.
    Dr. Boggio also disagreed with Dr. Foley’s assumption that
psychopathy is the most robust predictor of recidivism.  Dr.
Boggio opined that sexual deviance and antisocial lifestyle are
more predictive of a person’s future actions, and that
psychopathy is just one part of the equation.
    Dr. Boggio reiterated his opinion that, in light of Allen’s
APD, his demonstrated history of antisocial offending, and his

14 

   convictions for predatory sexual offenses, Allen is likely to
re-offend in the future.  Dr. Boggio opined that this likelihood
is more than 50% based on all the actuarial data.
    In its summation, the trial court noted that “each of the
experts [were] both well-qualified, both well-prepared, and
convincing.”  Thus, although it expressed “a very, very
generalized fear of releasing Mr. Allen on the public,” the
trial court ruled that the Commonwealth had not proven by clear
and convincing evidence that Allen is likely to engage in
sexually violent acts in the future.  Accordingly, the trial
court dismissed the Commonwealth’s petition to have Allen
civilly committed as a sexually violent predator.
    On February 18, 2004, the Commonwealth filed a motion to
reconsider.  The Commonwealth renewed its objection to the trial
court’s ruling permitting Dr. Foley to testify as an expert
witness because he is not licensed to practice in Virginia.  The
Commonwealth further contended that Dr. Foley’s evaluation of
Allen was based on “an incorrect standard” that would require
proof that a prisoner is incapable of controlling his sexually
violent impulses, rather than proof that a prisoner is likely to
re-offend.

15 

       On March 24, 2004, the trial court entered an order denying
the Commonwealth’s motion to reconsider.  In that same order,
the trial court reiterated its prior ruling that the
Commonwealth had not proven by clear and convincing evidence
that Allen “is a sexually violent predator within the meaning of
Virginia Code Section 37.1-70.1, et seq.”  Accordingly, the
trial court dismissed the Commonwealth’s petition and ordered
that Allen be unconditionally released.  This appeal followed.
                           DISCUSSION
    This case, along with Townes v. Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___,
___ S.E.2d ___ (2005) (today decided) and McCloud v.
Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___, ___ S.E.2d ___ (2005) (today
decided), involves the procedures required to be followed in
order for the Commonwealth to have a prisoner who has been
convicted of a sexually violent offense declared to be a
sexually violent predator and to have that prisoner
involuntarily committed to a secure mental health facility upon
his release from prison.  Those procedures are set out in
Chapter 2, Article 1.1 of Title 37.1, commonly referred to as
the Sexually Violent Predators Act (SVPA).  Code §§ 37.1-70.1
through 37.1-70.19.  We have reviewed those procedures in some

16 

   detail in McCloud and need not do so again here.  This case
presents issues not addressed in Townes or McCloud.

We first address the Commonwealth’s contention that the trial court erred in permitting Dr. Foley to qualify as an expert witness at trial because he is not licensed to practice in Virginia. At the time the trial court granted Allen’s motion for funds to employ Dr. Foley as an expert, Code § 37.1-70.8(A) (Supp. 2003) provided:4           Any person who is the subject of a petition under
    this article shall have, prior to trial, the right to
    employ experts at his own expense to perform
    examinations and testify on his behalf.  However, if a
    person has not employed an expert and requests expert
    assistance, the judge shall appoint such experts as he
    deems necessary to perform examinations and
    participate in the trial on the person’s behalf.

4 In 2004, Code § 37.1-70.8(A) was amended and now requires that any expert appointed to assist a defendant “shall have the qualifications required by subsection B of § 37.1-70.5.” See Acts 2004, ch. 764. Code § 37.1-70.5(B) sets the qualifications for the professional designated by the CRC to perform the mental health examination of a prisoner identified as being subject to the SVPA and provides that the examination must be conducted by “a licensed psychiatrist or a licensed clinical psychologist, designated by the Commissioner of the Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services.” A further provision of the amended version of Code § 37.1-70.8(A) provides that a privately employed expert need only be “a licensed psychiatrist or a licensed clinical psychologist.” Because this amendment did not come into force until after Allen’s trial, we express no opinion on its effect or validity. 

17 

       Where a statute designates express qualifications for an
expert witness, the witness must satisfy the statutory criteria
in order to testify as an expert.  See Hinkley v. Koehler, 269
Va. 82, 87, 606 S.E.2d ___, ___ (2005); Perdieu v. Blackstone
Family Practice Ctr., Inc., 264 Va. 408, 419, 568 S.E.2d 703,
709 (2002); Sami v. Varn, 260 Va. 280, 283, 535 S.E.2d 172, 174
(2000).  Nothing in Code § 37.1-70.8(A), as applicable at the
time of Allen’s trial, or elsewhere in the SVPA expressly
requires or by implication suggests that a mental health expert
employed or appointed to assist a prisoner must be licensed to
practice in Virginia.  In the absence of express statutory
requirements for the qualification of an expert witness in this
particular type of proceeding, we will apply the general rules
applicable to expert testimony in other civil cases.  See Code
§ 8.01-401.3.
    The sole purpose of permitting expert testimony is to
assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence presented or
to determine a fact in issue.  Id.; Santen v. Tuthill, 265 Va.
492, 498, 578 S.E.2d 788, 792 (2003); John v. Im, 263 Va. 315,
319, 559 S.E.2d 694, 696 (2002).  Generally, a witness is
qualified to testify as an expert when the witness possesses
sufficient knowledge, skill, or experience to make the witness

18 

   competent to testify as an expert on the subject matter at
issue.  See Sami, 260 Va. at 284, 535 S.E.2d at 174; Noll v.
Rahal, 219 Va. 795, 800, 250 S.E.2d 741, 744 (1979).  “In
essence, all that is necessary for a witness to qualify as an
expert is that the witness have sufficient knowledge of the
subject to give value to the witness’s opinion.”  Velazquez v.
Commonwealth, 263 Va. 95, 103, 557 S.E.2d 213, 218 (2002).
Without question, Dr. Foley’s education, employment experience,
and professional knowledge and skill with respect to the
identification and treatment of sexually violent offenders
qualified him to render an opinion that would assist the trial
court.
    The Commonwealth contends, however, that the trial court
further erred in not rejecting Dr. Foley’s testimony and
granting the Commonwealth’s motion to reconsider because his
testimony was based on an improper standard, thus demonstrating
that he lacked a sufficient appreciation of the requirements for
finding that Allen is a sexually violent predator under the
SVPA.  We disagree.
    “The admission of expert testimony is committed to the
sound discretion of the trial judge, and we will [reject] a
trial court’s decision only where that court has abused its

19 

   discretion.”  Brown v. Corbin, 244 Va. 528, 531, 423 S.E.2d 176,
178 (1992); see also Hinkley, 269 Va. at 91, 606 S.E.2d at ___.
Similarly, when the admission of expert witness testimony is
challenged in a post-trial proceeding, the determination whether
that testimony was properly received is a matter committed to
the trial court’s discretion.  When the admissibility of the
expert’s testimony is subsequently challenged on appeal, that
testimony must be viewed as a whole.  See Hussen v.
Commonwealth, 257 Va. 93, 99, 511 S.E.2d 106, 109 (1999).
    While the Commonwealth can point to isolated statements in
Dr. Foley’s testimony and in his written evaluation of Allen
that do not track the precise language of the definition of a
sexually violent predator in the SVPA, it also is clear that Dr.
Foley was aware of that standard.  Indeed, in his written
evaluation Dr. Foley quotes language from Code § 37.1-70.1
defining the standard almost verbatim.  Moreover, even if we
were to agree w

M3 Assignment 2 Submission Instructions Assignment 2: LASA 1: Gender Perception in Nonverbal Communication

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.d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-menu {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-menu {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu,.d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-menu-0, .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 {   box-sizing:border-box;color:#565a5c;display:none;left:0;position:absolute;text-align:left;top:calc(100% + 0px);width:100%;z-index:1000 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   display:inline-block }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened] {   -webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] {   bottom:calc(100% + 0px);top:auto;-webkit-animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease;animation:d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 .3s ease }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px,21px,8px,-3px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px,21px,22px,-3px);bottom:-8px }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content>div.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86,90,92,.2) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-content {   display:none }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-radius:.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   background-color:#fff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:.3rem;box-shadow:0 2px 12px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.15);box-sizing:border-box;min-width:70px;max-width:370px;position:absolute;width:100vw }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-width.d2l-dropdown-content {   bottom:100% }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;max-width:100%;outline:0;padding:1rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1[no-padding] .d2l-dropdown-content-container.d2l-dropdown-content {   padding:0 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content,.d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   height:5px;position:relative;z-index:1 }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-top-left-radius:.3rem;border-top-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-content {   border-bottom-left-radius:.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:.3rem }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  .d2l-dropdown-content-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-content {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0,0,0,.05) }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-dropdown-content-1, .d2l-dropdown-content-1[dir=rtl] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-content-1 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0 }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1 }  }  d2l-menu-item-link {   background-color:#fff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:.8rem;outline:0;width:100% }  d2l-menu-item-link[disabled],d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:focus,d2l-menu-item-link[disabled]:hover {   cursor:default;opacity:.75 }  d2l-menu-item-link[hidden] {   display:none }  d2l-menu-item-link {   display:block;padding:0 }  d2l-menu-item-link>a.d2l-menu-item-link {   color:inherit;display:block;line-height:1rem;outline:0;overflow-x:hidden;padding:.75rem 1rem;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0 }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   background-color:transparent;border:none;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:0;margin:0;padding:0;text-decoration:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:disabled {   opacity:.5 }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover {   outline-style:none; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   transition:color .3s ease; }  .d2l-icon-button-0:focus d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button,.d2l-icon-button-0:hover d2l-icon.d2l-icon-button {   color:#005694; }  .d2l-icon-button-0 {   ; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-icon-button-0, .d2l-icon-button-0[dir=rtl] {   ; }  .d2l-icon-button-0>span.d2l-icon-button {   position:absolute!important;overflow:hidden;width:1px;height:1px;white-space:nowrap;left:-10000px; }  d2l-image-action-group {   display:inline-block;line-height:0 }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:1.2rem }  d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-right:0 }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link],[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action], d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action] {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1.2rem }  [dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >a[is=d2l-image-action-link]:last-child,[dir=rtl] d2l-image-action-group >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child, d2l-image-action-group[dir=rtl] >button[is=d2l-image-action]:last-child {   margin-left:0 }  iron-a11y-announcer {   display:inline-block;position:fixed;clip:rect(0,0,0,0) }  d2l-course-image {   display:flex;align-items:center }  .d2l-course-image-hidden.d2l-course-image {   opacity:0 }  .shown.d2l-course-image {   animation-name:shown;animation-duration:.5s;animation-fill-mode:forwards }  @keyframes shown { 0% {   opacity:0 }  100% {   opacity:1 }  }  img.d2l-course-image {   min-height:100%;width:100% }  iron-scroll-threshold {   display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons {   border-top:1px solid transparent;display:block;margin:0 auto;width:100% }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons-floating.d2l-floating-buttons {   animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;-webkit-animation:d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 .5s ease-out;background-color:#fff;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);border-top-color:#d3d9e3;bottom:0;box-shadow:0 -2px 4px rgba(86,90,92,.2);left:0;position:fixed;right:0;z-index:999 }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons>div.d2l-floating-buttons {   padding:.75rem 0 0 0;position:relative }  .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-right:0.75rem;margin-bottom:0.75rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-0 .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button, .d2l-floating-buttons-0[dir=rtl] .d2l-floating-buttons-container.d2l-floating-buttons  button {   margin-left:0.75rem;margin-right:0 }  @keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);transform:translate(0,0) }  }  @-webkit-keyframes d2l-floating-buttons-animation-d2l-floating-buttons-0 { 0% {   border-color:transparent;background-color:transparent;-webkit-transform:translate(0,10px) }  100% {   border-top-color:#d3d9e3;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.88);-webkit-transform:translate(0,0) }  }  d2l-dropdown-button {   display:inline-block;outline:0;overflow:visible;position:relative }  d2l-dropdown-button d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   height:.8rem;width:.8rem }  d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-right:.6rem }  d2l-dropdown-button[primary] d2l-icon.d2l-dropdown-button {   color:#fff }  [dir=rtl] d2l-dropdown-button button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button, d2l-dropdown-button[dir=rtl] button.d2l-dropdown-button>span.d2l-dropdown-button {   margin-left:.6rem;margin-right:0 }  d2l-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group,d2l-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  d2l-action-button-group {   display:block }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   position:relative }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group {   -ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group,d2l-action-button-group[can-shrink] .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex-wrap:nowrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:nowrap;flex-wrap:nowrap }  d2l-action-button-group .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   -ms-flex:0 1 auto;-webkit-flex:0 1 auto;flex:0 1 auto }  .responsive-button-list.d2l-action-button-group > d2l-button-list {   display:-ms-flexbox;display:-webkit-flex;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:stretch;-webkit-align-items:stretch;align-items:stretch;-ms-flex-wrap:wrap;-webkit-flex-wrap:wrap;flex-wrap:wrap }  d2l-sticky-element {   position:-webkit-sticky;position:sticky;top:0;z-index:1 }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 {   display:block;width:100%;position:relative; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   outline:0;overflow-x:auto;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box;; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][h-scrollbar] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([h-scrollbar]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:dashed 1px #d3d9e3;border-right:dashed 1px #d3d9e3; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-right]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-left:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl][scrollbar-left] .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl]:host([scrollbar-left]) .wrapper.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   border-right:none; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   position:absolute;top:10px;border-radius:50%;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;background-color:#f9fafb;height:18px;width:18px;padding:10px;box-sizing:content-box; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none;margin-bottom:60px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:-15px;left:auto; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper .action.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   right:auto;left:-15px; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:right }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,[dir=rtl] .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0 .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper, .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[dir=rtl] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   float:left }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[h-scrollbar] .sticky.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:inline; }  .d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-left] .left.d2l-scroll-wrapper,.d2l-scroll-wrapper-0[scrollbar-right] .right.d2l-scroll-wrapper {   display:none; }  d2l-table-wrapper {   background-color:transparent;display:block;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 {   ; }  .d2l-table-0 {   background-color:transparent;border-collapse:separate!important;border-spacing:0;display:table;font-size:.8rem;font-weight:400;width:100%; }  .d2l-table-0 >thead {   display:table-header-group; }  .d2l-table-0 >tfoot {   display:table-footer-group;background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody {   background-color:#fff; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr {   display:table-row; }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td,.d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3;display:table-cell;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle;font-weight:inherit;padding:1rem; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th {   text-align:right }  .d2l-table-0 >*>tr[header]>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr>th {   color:#565a5c;font-family:inherit;font-size:.7rem;line-height:1rem;background-color:#f9fafb;margin:1rem 0; }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:first-child {   border-left:0 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>td:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>td:last-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >*>tr>th:last-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >*>tr>th:last-child {   border-right:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead>tr:first-child>th:first-child {   border-top-left-radius:0;border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0.3rem }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:first-child,[dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child, .d2l-table-0[dir=rtl] >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:first-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>td:last-child,.d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th:last-child {   border-top-right-radius:0 }  .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th,.d2l-table-0 >thead>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  .d2l-table-0 >thead~tbody:first-of-type>tr:first-child>th {   border-top:1px solid #d3d9e3 }  [dir=rtl] .d2l-table-0 >tbody:first-of-type>tr:fi