Only for Micheal Kasy 2

  

1.Prepare a 350- to 700-word outline of the Energy Policy and Natural Resources Presentation due in Week 5. The outline should include the layout of the presentation, key points, supporting details, and references to be used.

2.Select one of the following environmental topics: 

Ozone      layer depletion Global      climate change Transboundary      air pollution Ocean      overfishing

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you address the following: 

Describe      your topics–characterize the nature of the problem, its effects on human      health or the environment, and some history of the problem. Explain      how conventional law or customary law may play a role in solving your      environmental problems, and what extent the global commons is a factor. Research      at least two peer-reviewed articles on your topics that address solutions. Compare      and contrast several solutions and recommend a solution to the problem of      your choice. Include a discussion of U.S. policies that should be      considered to address the problem. 

Cite at least four references, including the two peer-reviewed articles.
 

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

WEEK 5

1.You are part of a consulting group that has been invited by the presidential administration to present on energy policies and the use of natural resources.
 

Discuss the following in a 15- to 20-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with notes: 

History      of U.S. energy policies over the 20th and 21st centuries  Comparison      of coal, nuclear, and at least two renewable energy sources in terms of      environmental effects, suitability for large-scale energy supply, and      economic considerations  Recommendations      to the administration on how to improve the current energy policies      considering environmental sustainability and economic growth  Perform      research on the Roadless Area Conservation Rule and the Bush      administration’s attempt at its repeal. Present both sides of this issue      and make recommendations regarding the continuance of the Roadless      Rule. 

Cite at least three references.
 

Format citations and references consistent with APA guidelines.

Question 1 Issue 13 – Aid Policies and World Hunger a. What is the origin of the debate in this issue? b. Outline and discuss three main areas of disagreement between Robert Paarlberg and Lester Brown. c. Which side do you agree with? Explain your answ

Question 1

Issue 13 – Aid Policies and World Hunger

a. What is the origin of the debate in this issue?

b. Outline and discuss three main areas of disagreement between Robert Paarlberg and Lester Brown.

c. Which side do you agree with? Explain your answer.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

 

Question 2

Issue 14 – Genetically Modified Foods

a. Describe genetically modified foods and why they are controversial.

b. Outline and discuss three main areas of disagreement between Gerald Coleman and Sean McDonagh.

c. Which side do you agree with? Explain your answer.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

 

Question 3

Issue 15 – Organic Farming

a. What is organic farming?

b. Outline and discuss three main areas of disagreement between Catherine Badgley and John Miller.

c. Which side do you agree with? Explain your answer.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

 

Question 4

Explain the various ways that U. S. aid policies impact the global food supply.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

 

Question 5

Describe your own personal feelings about genetically modified foods. Do you take extra care to make sure you are not purchasing those types of foods? Why or why not?

Your response should be at least 200 words in length.

Course Textbook

 

Easton, T. A. (2011). Taking sides: Clashing views on environmental issues (14th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation

Create an eight- to ten-slide presentation about the uses and limitations of product labeling for public safety. You can use the information from your textbook, as well as information from other reliable sources (Note that unmonitored websites, such as Wikipedia, are not acceptable.). Access the CSU Online Library for the additional resources. Be creative and add photos, images or other supplemental graphics to support your presentation. Ensure you that you use images from the public domain or creative commons.

 

Be sure to cite any sources used in a reference slide, using proper APA formatting. You may also use the slide notes function to explain slide contents as necessary

who can help out

SCI201-1404B-15 Environmental Science and SustainabilityTask Name:Phase 5 Individual ProjectDeliverable Length:2–3 pagesDetails:Weekly tasks or assignments (Individual or Group Projects) will be due by Monday and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time.

As an environmentalist, you are very interested in how economics plays a role in determining how many and what type of environmental laws are passed. There are many environmental laws that are determined by economic conditions.

Choose 1 environmental law to research, and give a detailed description of the law including the following:The date the law was passedDescription of the lawWhat are the provisions of the law?Background informationWhat initiated the law?Why was it passed?Economic impact generated by the lawWhat kinds of costs, fines, or economic benefits are associated with the law? Provide economic data to support this.Whether you feel that this particular environmental law has improved the environment or situationWhy or why not?

Communication 2

Answer all of the questions listed. You must be specific, provide details in your answers, and use your text and other sources to back up any opinions. Appropriate college level writing is required.  Use of small i’s or text abbreviations, and yes and no answers WILL NOT be accepted.

 

Aging
List and discuss 3 physical changes that occur with aging.(i.e. saggy skin – occurs because…)
List and discuss 3 mental changes that occur with aging. 
Discuss actions you can start taking now to avoid some of these occuring and to ensure a healthier aging process. 

Death and Dying
29 year old Brittany Maynard made the news last year because of her fight to choose her own day to die. Please watch the video below and then comment your opinion on what you heard. Be specific in your arguments and cite the video for full credit.   Brittany Maynard: Choosing Her Day to Die Many of us tend to deny death or are uncomfortable talking about it. How could death become a more acceptable topic to discuss?

Using a computer software program, the epidemiologists have analyzed the food history data from the questionnaires and have constructed the following attack rate table.

 

 Using a computer software program, the epidemiologists have analyzed the food history data from the questionnaires and have constructed the following attack rate table.  

ATTACK RATE TABLE

FOOD ITEMSPERSONS WHO ATE SPECIFIED FOODPERSONS WHO DID NOT EAT SPECIFIED FOOD

95% Confidence Interval

IllNot IllTotal

Attack RateIllNot IllTotalAttack RateChicken36

306655%4303412%1.2 – 17.7Potato Salad32407244%8202829%0.6 – 3.9Potato Chips2042483%20567626%1.8 – 5.7Ice Cream24024100%16607621%2.6 – 8.8Pie3243689%8566413%2.8 – 18.0Pepsi36407647%4202417%0.8 – 10.5

Calculate the relative risk for each of the food items.

Identify the food items that have a statistically significant confidence interval.Identify the food item that is the most likely source of transmission.  Explain.

To identify the contaminated food item you need to identify the food items that have significant confidence intervals and pick the food with the highest relative risk.  For more information, refer to “Interpretation of Odds Ratios and Relative Risk” on the Module homepage.

 

 

Assignment Expectations, in order to earn full credit:

Please write your paper in your own words. That is the only way I can evaluate your level of understanding. Quotes are rarely needed; if necessary, they should comprise less than 10% of a paper and must be properly cited.

Even though the papers must be written in your own words, you are required to cite sources for any statement of fact or idea that is not common knowledge. You must cite the sources within the body of the paper and include a reference list at the end of the paper.

Note: Wikipedia is not an acceptable source of information. Use credible, professional, and scholarly sources such as journal articles from ProQuest or EBSCO, and government, university, or nonprofit organizations’ Web sites.

You must clearly show that you have read the module homepage and the required background materials. You are welcome to do research in addition to — but not instead of — the required readings.

Your papers will be evaluated on the following factors:References – citations are used within the body of the paper any time you state a fact or idea that is not common knowledge. A reference list is included at the end of the paper.Precision – you follow all instructions and you answer each part of the assignment.Breadth – you show broad knowledge of the module’s topic.Depth – you go into detail to show more critical thought about the specific tasks or questions in the assignment.Clarity – the extent to which you elaborate and include discussion or examples as asked.Application – the extent to which you apply the information to a real-life situation related to the assignment, if asked.

Before you begin, please review this information about When to Cite Sources http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pub/integrity/pages/cite/

Other resources are available at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

 

See more examples:

Analytic epidemiology is defined as the study of the determinants of disease or reasons for relatively high or low frequency in specific groups.  Analytic epidemiology answers questions regarding why the rate is high or low in a particular group.  Observations of differences lead to formation of hypotheses.

Analytic Studies

There are basically two types of studies: experimental and observational.  In an experimental study, the exposure has not occurred yet.  The investigator controls the exposure in the study groups and studies the impact.  For example, he may immunize one group with an experimental vaccine that has been developed for a disease and compare the frequency with which the disease develops to the control group (which had no modification).  In an observational study, the exposure has already occurred.  The exposures and outcomes are observed and analyzed, not created experimentally.  Observational studies are often more practical and continue to provide the major contribution to our understanding of diseases.  There are two main types of observational studies: cohort (prospective) and case-control (retrospective) studies.

In a cohort study, a group of people who share a common experience within a defined time period (cohort) are categorized based upon their exposure status.  For example, individuals at a work place where an asbestos exposure occurred would be considered a cohort.  Another example would be individuals attending a wedding where a foodborne illness occurred.  Cohort studies have well-defined populations.   Often, cohort studies involve following a cohort over time in order to determine the rate at which a disease develops in relation to the exposure.  

In a cohort study, relative risk is used to determine whether an association exists between an exposure and a disease.  Relative risk is defined as ratio of the incidence rate among exposed individuals to the incidence rate among unexposed individuals. 

To calculate the relative risk, you would use the following formula: (a/a+b) / (c/c+d) where:

a = the number of individuals with a disease who were exposed. 

b = the number of individuals without a disease who were exposed.

c = the number of individuals with a disease who were NOT exposed. 

d = the number of individuals without a disease who were NOT exposed. 

In a case-control study, the sample is based upon illness status, rather than exposure status.  The researcher identifies a group of people who meet the case definition and a group of people who do not have the illness (controls).  The objective is to determine if the two groups differ in the rate of exposure to a specific factor or factors.   

In contrast to a cohort study, the total number of people exposed in a case-control study is unknown.  Therefore, relative risk cannot be used.  Instead, an odds ratio or risk ratio is used.  An odds ratio measures the odds that an exposed individual will develop a disease in comparison to an unexposed individual.  Please click the button below to learn how to calculate an odds ratio.

To calculate an odds ratio, you would use the following formula: ad/bc

where:

a = the number of individuals with a disease who were exposed. 

b = the number of individuals without a disease who were exposed.

c = the number of individuals with a disease who were NOT exposed. 

d = the number of individuals without a disease who were NOT exposed. 

Below is an example…

If a researcher selects 50 Lyme disease cases and 100 controls for a case-control study, and the results indicated that 45 cases and 10 controls recently hiked in a national forest, the odds ratio would be inserted into the 2×2 table below:  

 

Lyme Disease

No Disease

TOTAL

Exposure to Hiking

45

10

55

No Hiking

5

90

95

TOTAL

50

100

150

The odds ratio would be calculated as follows:

Odds ratio = (45 x 90) / (10 x 5) = 81

Interpretation of Odds Ratios and Relative Risk

A relative risk or odds ratio that is approximately equal to 1.0 indicates that there is no association between the exposure and the outcome.  If the relative risk or odds ratio is significantly greater than 1.0, then the outcome and exposure are positively associated.  If the relative risk or odds ratio is significantly less than 1.0, then the outcome and exposure are negatively associated and the exposure is referred to as being protective.  For example, exercise may be negatively associated with lung cancer because individuals who smoke are less likely to exercise.

To determine if a value is statistically significant, confidence intervals are often calculated using computer software programs.  A 95% confidence interval is defined as a range of values that has a 95% probability of containing the value being estimated (e.g. odds ratio or relative risk).  For example, if the 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio of 81 in the above example is 23.5-302.9, then it tells you that there is a 95% probability that the odds ratio will be between 23.5 and 302.9. 

Confidence intervals that are above 1.0 and DO NOT include 1.0 are statistically significant and may indicate that a food item is contaminated.  For example, a confidence interval of 1.1 – 7.9 is significant because 1.1 (the left number of the confidence interval) is above 1.0.  The number 1.0 is NOT between 1.1 and 7.9.

Confidence intervals that include 1.0 are NOT significant and indicate that the food item is probably NOT contaminated.  Using pepsi as an example, the attack rate table indicates that the 95% confidence interval equals: .8 – 10.5.  Because 1.0 is between .8 and 10.5, it includes one and therefore is probably NOT contaminated.

To identify the contaminated food item you need to identify the food items that have significant confidence intervals and pick the food with the highest relative risk

To view an example of how to calculate a relative risk, click here

Often these values are put into the following 2×2 table:

 

Disease

No Disease

Exposed

a

b

Unexposed

c

d

The attack rate is a form of incidence in which the numerator is the number of new cases of a health problem during an outbreak, and the denominator is the population at the beginning of the period.  Food-specific attack rates are frequently used in foodborne outbreak investigations to compare those who ate a specific food with those who did not eat the food.  A high attack rate among persons who ate a specified food suggests that a food is associated with the illness.  A low attack rate among persons who ate the food suggests that the food is not associated with the illness.  The risk difference is the difference in attack rates (i.e. the percent ill among those who ate a specified food minus the percent ill among those who did not eat the food).  Usually, the risk difference is large for the contaminated food and small for other foods.  For example, the risk difference for cheese in the table below is 74 – 56 = 18.

Food

Those who ate specified food

Those who did not eat foodIllWellTotalAttack rateIllWellTotalAttack rate

Cheese1762374%971656%

A statistically significant association between an exposure and a disease does not necessarily mean that there is a cause-effect relationship between the exposure and illness.  The association could reflect biases in the design, conduct, or analysis of the study.  The association may also occur because the exposure and the disease are related to some common underlying condition.  Please click here to view the criteria that are widely used to evaluate whether an association is causal.

 http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/AnalyticStudyDesigns.pdf

 

 

Required Readings

See, A. (2000). Use of Human Epidemiology Studies in Proving Causation. Defense Counsel Journal, 67 (4). Retrieved on February 21, 2013 at http://ruby.fgcu.edu/Courses/Twimberley/EpiRiskAsst/Causation.pdf

The University of Pittsburgh. (2005, March 3). Supercourse: Web of Causation; Exposure and Disease Outcomes. February 21, 2013 at: http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec19071/index.htm

The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill Carl V Phillips1,2,3 and Karen J Goodman1 Epidemiol Perspect Innov. 2004; 1: 3. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524370/

CDC (2004) How to Investigate an Outbreak. Retrieved February 21, 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/EXCITE/classroom/outbreak/objectives.htm

Optional Readings

Rothman, K.J., Greenland, S. Causation and Causal Inference in Epidemiology. American Journal of Public Health, 2005;95:S144–S150 Retrieved from http://www.defendingscience.org/upload/Rothman-Greenland.pdf

Kaelin, M.A. & Huebner, W.W. (2002). Epidemiology, Health Literacy, and Health Education. American Journal of Health Education, 33 (6). Retrieved from ProQuest

University of Illinois at Chicago (n.d.) Supercourse: Different Kinds of Epidemiologic Studies. Retrieved from University of Illinois at Chicago Web site: http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec0571/index.htm

University of Illinois at Chicago (n.d.) Supercourse: Epidemiologic Design II: Focus on Analytic Study. Retrieved from http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec0561/index.htm

  

csub 1009

 First, watch the video “Marking a Text”

 

 Next, watch the video “Annotating a Text”:    https://bb.csub.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-724482-dt-content-rid-2513265_1/courses/DZhou_CSUB1009/Annotating%20a%20Text%20_web%20version_.mp4

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 First, watch the video “Outlining”:   https://streamer.csub.edu/ecase/CSUB_S4S_Outlining_-_20160902_221637_6.html

Next, watch the video “Speaking Tips

 

https://streamer.csub.edu/ecase/CSUB_S4S_Speaking_Tips_- _20160902_213540_6.html

 

 

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 First, watch the video “Setting Up Cornell Notes”:

 

 

 Next, watch the video “Taking Cornell Notes”:

 

 

 

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 First, watch the video “Levels of Inquiry”:

 

 

 Next, watch the video “Developing Study Questions from Cornell Notes”:

 

 

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First, watch the video “KWL: KNOW, WANT to Know, LEARNED

 

 

 Next, download and complete the homework for  Module #4, using the excerpt from The Big Thirst below, and bring it with you to your next class :