1. Does our understanding of neural networks adequately expl

1. Does our understanding of neural networks adequately explain the complex functions of the human nervous system? In your answer, you should include such terms as emergent properties, affective behaviors, cognitive behaviors, neurons (and the functional anatomy of each of its sections), action potentials, graded potentials, electrochemical gradient, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, voltage-gated Na+ channel, voltage-gated K+ channel, Na+/K+-ATPase, EPSP, IPSP, temporal summation, spatial summation, trigger zone of the axon hillock, myelination, salutatory conduction, nodes of Ranvier, axon terminal, voltage-gated Ca+ channel, synaptic vesicle, neurotransmitter, and synapse. You should be able to describe a few nervous pathologies, how they arise, and how they affect normal organismal function.2. How do you perceive the environment?In your answer, you should explain “perception,” the organization of the nervous system, chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, thermoreceptors, somatic senses (touch,thermoreception, nociception), special senses (olfaction, gustation, audition, vision), olfactory nerves, olfactory epithelium, olfactory receptors, taste pore, taste cell (each of the 5 types), sound waves (including amplitude and wavelength), outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, cochlea, hair cells, eye, cornea, lens, accommodation, myopia, hyperopia, stretch-gated ion channels, rods, cones, color vision, and bipolar cells. 3. Why does muscle contraction require energy, and where does this energy come from?You should explain the three steps in force generation in muscle and the role of ATP in each.You should explain the neuromusclular junction, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, acetylcholine,action potential, T-tubules, DHP receptor, ryanodine receptor, sarcoplasmic reticulum, SERCA pumps, the role of calcium in muscle contraction, troponin, tropomyosin, myosin, actin, thick filament, thin filament, sliding filament hypothesis, sarcomere, myofibril, muscle fiber, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, creatine, creatine kinase, and phosphocreatine.